Levels of cytokine transcripts in the spleens of vaccinated turkeys as measured by real-time qRT-PCR. Results are expressed as corrected ΔCt values ± standard error of the mean after normalization with the Ct value of 28S rRNA product of each sample. Turkey poults were given sterile saline (mock) as a coarse spray (open bars), a formalin-inactivated vaccine based on the parent strain EC34195 formulated in aluminium hydroxide adjuvant via the subcutaneous route (black bars) or Poulvac® E. coli as a coarse spray (checked black and white bars) starting at one day-old. Five birds from each group were sampled per time-point. *denotes P ≤ 0.05 relative to mock-vaccinated controls.