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Table 1 Overview of the animal experiment

From: Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3 - infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs

Group no. Animal Sex Age (in months) Clinical signs and blood chemistry* Gross lesions Liver histopathology Viral antigens in liver by IHC
Grading Distribution
Group 1. Intravenous inoculation of wild boar wb93 3 both with reduced feed intake, mild diarrhea, BA, ALT and γGT ↑ in all animals mild hyperplasia of liver lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue in large intestine both with panlobular hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes +++ diffuse mainly in Kupffer cells and LSEC
wb95 3 ++  
wb10 6 both with γGT ↑ both with multifocal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and hepatocellular degeneration (mainly centrilobular) +++ mainly centrilobular in Kupffer cells associated with degenerated hepatocytes
wb11 6 +++
Group 2. Intravenous inoculation of miniature pigs mp30** 3 γGT ↑ (not in mp30) nematodes in gut and milk spots in liver (mp39) multifocal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes (mp37 and mp39) 0 diffuse mainly in Kupffer cells and LSEC
mp37 3 +
mp39 3 ++
mp40 3 0
Group 3. Contact infection of wild boar and miniature pigs wb87 3 reduced feed intake, mild diarrhea, BA, ALT and γGT ↑ mild hyperplasia of liver and intestinal lymph nodes, altered liver consistency and milk spots, moderate splenomegaly intralobular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes ++ mainly centrilobular in Kupffer cells and LSEC
mp63 3 all with γGT ↑ mild hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in large intestine, nematodes in gut and renal cyst (mp68) all with mild lymphohistiocytic infiltrates within liver lobules 0 -
mp68 3 0
mp79 3 0
  1. Tissues were taken on days 29 (Group 2) and 28 (Group 1, Group 3). Grades are formulated on a result of viral antigen density throughout a uniform tissue type. Sections were graded on two separate occasions, without referring to previous recorded results to help standardize the classification. Definition of immunolabelling grades as: 0 = no antigen staining seen, + = mild immunolabelling, ++ = moderate antigen staining, +++ = marked immunolabelling. LSEC = liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. *For details see Figure 1. **Sudden death at 1 dpi (after blood collection). ↑ = elevated biochemical parameter.