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Table 2 Genetic, time and geographical pairwise distances (with corresponding standard deviation values) calculated for the within-year Philippines O CATHAY FMDV isolates groups and for each of the country based data from the earliest samples collected within the specific group

From: Phylodynamic reconstruction of O CATHAY topotype foot-and-mouth disease virus epidemics in the Philippines

Data No of samples Genetic distance Time distance Geo distance
Philippines
1994 7 0.010 ± 0.002 0.23 ± 0.05 -
1995 8 0.013 ± 0.006 0.63 ± 0.77 124.72 ± 95.81
1996 9 0.020 ± 0.004 0.10 ± 0.03 235.66 ± 252.21
1997 14 0.016 ± 0.013 0.38 ± 0.38 119.65 ± 117.12
1998 23 0.011 ± 0.009 - 51.62 ± 42.08
1999 5 0.011 ± 0.002 - 146.83 ± 222.79
2000 16 0.054 ± 0.021 0.16 ± 0.13 296.55 ± 130.74
2001 7 0.057 ± 0.008 - 14.22 ± 4.28
2003 8 0.051 ± 0.013 0.19 ± 0.08 344.45 ± 26.98
2004 12 0.010 ± 0.004 0.41 ± 0.23 322.32 ± 38.83
2005 3 0.005 ± 0.005 0.03 ± 0.01 12.48 ± 17.65
Global
China 6 0.148 ± 0.081 31.93 ± 19.15 -
Hong Kong 138 0.157 ± 0.022 32.95 ± 7.24 -
Philippines 112 0.047 ± 0.022 4.59 ± 3.50 -
Taiwan 46 0.015 ± 0.025 1.38 ± 3.01 -
Vietnam 13 0.104 ± 0.016 7.84 ± 1.65 -
  1. Genetic distances were estimated by the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano substitution model plus gamma-distributed rates (HKY85 + Γ4), whereas geographic distance were calculated using the Haversine formula [38]. Genetic distance is expressed in base substitution per site, time distance is defined in years, whilst geographical distance is measured in kilometres.