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Table 1 Average distribution of AIV-nucleoprotein antigen determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples

From: The NS segment of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) enhances the virulence of an H7N1 AIV in chickens

VIRUS STRAIN Time of AIV NP antigen detection   Main localization
Tissue 1 dpi 2 dpi 3 dpi 4 dpi  
FPV      
  CNS - - + + Neurons, glial cells
  Heart - + + + Myocytes
  Kidney - - −/+ + Epithelialtubularcells
  Pancreas - - + + Exocrine acinar cells
  Liver - - + + Kupffer’s cells
  Spleen - - + + Macrophages
  Thymus - + + + Macrophages
  Bursa of Fabricius - - + + Macrophages
FPV NS GD      
  CNS - - ++ + Neurons, glial cells, ependymalcells
  Heart - ++ + + Myocytes, macrophages
  Kidney - +++ ++ ++ Epithelial tubular cells
  Pancreas - - ++ + Exocrine acinar cells
  Liver - - + + Kupffer’s cells
  Spleen - + + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
  Thymus - + + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
  Bursa of Fabricius - - + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
FPV NS VN      
  CNS - - ++ + Neurons, glial cells, ependymalcells
  Heart - ++ + + Myocytes, macrophages
  Kidney - - ++ ++ Epithelial tubular cells
  Pancreas - - ++ + Exocrine acinar cells
  Liver - - + + Kupffer’s cells
  Spleen - - + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
  Thymus - - + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
  Bursa of Fabricius - - + + Macrophages, Endothelial cells
Saline Solution      
  CNS - - - - -
  Heart - - - - -
  Kidney - - - - -
  Pancreas - - - - -
  Liver - - - - -
  Spleen - - - - -
  Thymus - - - - -
  Bursa of Fabricius - - - - -
  1. Chickens were inoculated with FPV, FPV NS GD or FPV NS VN and necropsies were performed at different time-points. The extension of the staining in tissues was measured by a semi-quantitative score: no positive cells (−), single positive cells (+), scattered groups of positive cells (++), and widespread positivity (+++).