Effect of virus-vectored ovine IL-2 and/or GMCSF on serum antibody responses induced in goats vaccinated with Ad expressing the H protein of PPRV. Goats were vaccinated intra-muscularly with 1 × 109 IU of each Ad virus as described in Table 1 and were challenged intranasally with 1 × 105 TCID50 of pathogenic PPRV, Ivory Coast/89, 15 weeks later. Mock refers to group A of Table 1 (Ad-GFP + Ad-IL-2 + Ad-GMCSF), while H++ refers to group E of Table 1 (Ad-H + Ad-IL-2 + Ad-GMCSF). (A) H-specific serum antibody responses were analysed by competition ELISA and expressed as mean % inhibition of the binding of an H-specific monoclonal antibody to PPRV ± S.D. (B) Virus neutralising antibody titres were determined by 50% plaque reduction assay and expressed as log10 neutralising titre ± S.D. (C) The N-specific serum antibody response was analysed by ELISA and the post-challenge (pc) response is expressed as mean % inhibition of the binding of a PPRV N-specific monoclonal antibody ± S.E.