Effect of virus-vectored ovine IL-2 and GMCSF on immune responses induced in goats vaccinated with Ad or FP expressing PPRV glycoproteins. Groups of two goats were vaccinated intra-muscularly with a mixture of 1 × 109 IU of Ad-F and 1 × 109 IU of Ad-H with or without the addition of 1 × 109 IU of Ad-IL-2 and 1 × 109 IU of Ad-GMCSF (Ad++), or with a mixture of 1 × 108 pfu FP-F and 1 × 108 pfu FP-H, with or without the addition of 1 × 108 pfu FP-IL-2 and 1 × 108 pfu FP-GMCSF (FP++). (A) Priming of F- and H-specific T-cells was determined by proliferation of PBMCs stimulated, in vitro, with peptide pools representing the PPRV F and H proteins. Results are expressed as the mean stimulation index ± S.E for all the Ad-vaccinated or all the FP-vaccinated animals. (B) At post mortem examination, 12 weeks after vaccination, H-specific T-cells in prescapular lymph nodes were analysed by flow cytometry of lymphocytes stimulated, in vitro, with H peptides. Results are expressed as % CD4+ IFNγ+ and CD8+ IFNγ+ from each animal. (C) H-specific serum antibody responses were determined by competition ELISA and expressed as % inhibition of the binding of an H-specific monoclonal antibody to PPRV. (D) Virus neutralising antibodies were analysed as described in methods and expressed as Log10 neutralising titre.