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Table 2 Compounds tested as adjuvants and gene vaccine delivery systems to fish species, published from 2007 to date

From: Strategies and hurdles using DNA vaccines to fish

Particles Carrier molecule(s) Assembly Species
Alginate ß(1,4)-D-mannuronic and α(1,4)-L-guluronic acid residues Encapsulation Japanese flounder [81]
Chitosan ß(1,4)-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine copolymer Encapsulation Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)[82]
Japanese flounder [83]
Asian sea bass (Lates calcifer) [84]
Turbot [85]
Liposomes Artificial lipid bilayer vesicles Encapsulation Kelp grouper (E. bruneus) [86]
Polycaprolactone Biodegradable, synthetic polymer Coating Indian major carp (Labeo rohito) [87]
Calcium phosphate Inorganic, biodegradable and biocompatible material Coating Indian major carp [88]