Effect of skin mucus removal on CyHV-3 binding to carp epidermal cells. Tail fin ventral lobes of carp were mock-treated or treated by rubbing with a soft tissue paper to remove epidermal mucus. Immediately after skin treatment, tail fin explants were harvested and inoculated ex vivo with a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase as a reporter gene (106 PFU/mL of culture medium for 2 h). At the end of the 2 h inoculation period, a fragment of the fin was collected and processed for electron microscopy examination (EM analysis). The arrows indicate CyHV-3 particles bound to cells or cell debris. Twenty-four hours post-inoculation, duplicate tail explant cultures were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging (lower panels). Reproduced with permission from Raj et al. .