cDC and pDC produce IL-12 in response to N. caninum i.g. infection. (a) Representative example of flow cytometric analysis of surface PDCA-1 and CD11c expression on total MLN leukocyte cells. Dot plots represent cells collected from C57BL/6 mice 18 h after i.g. challenge with 5 × 107N. caninum tachyzoites. Gates were set as shown to delineate cDC (CD11chigh) and pDC (CD11clow PDCA-1high). (b) Proportion of IL-12+ cells within cDC and pDC populations in the MLN of C57BL/6 mice, evaluated by flow cytometric analysis, at the specified time points after i.g. treatment with PBS (open bars) or i.g. inoculation with 5 × 107 N. caninum tachyzoites (closed bars). Bars represent the mean plus one standard deviation of three animals in the PBS group and four animals in the infected mice group. This is one representative result of two independent experiments (*P<0.05; **P<0.01).