Effect of swapping species of TLR1 and CD14 on Pam2CSK4/Pam3CSK4 stimulation. SW620 cells were transiently transfected with combinations of TLR2, TLR1 and CD14 (as indicated in the graphs) and reporter constructs NF-κB-luc and Renilla luciferase. Cells were stimulated 24 hours later with Pam2CSK4 at 20 ng/mL, Pam3CSK4 at 20 ng/mL, or medium alone. Cells were stimulated for six hours, lysed, and analysed for luciferase activity. Data are from a representative experiment and expressed as triplicate mean ± SEM for that experiment. (A) Swapping the species of TLR1 does not restore the equine response to Pam2CSK4/Pam3CSK4 to that of human. (B) Swapping the species of CD14 did not affect responses to Pam2CSK4 or Pam3CSK4.