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Table 1 Bird species found dead or with symptoms of encephalitis in Europe in which the presence of WNV has been evidenced by real time RT-PCR or by virus isolation

From: Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

Year Country Order Family Species Lineage Ref
2001-2004 Spain Falconiformes Accipitridae Spanish imperial eagle 1 [7]
(Aquila adalberti)
2003 Hungary Anseriformes Anatidae Domestic goose 1 [6, 25]
(Anser anser domesticus)
2004 Hungary Falconiformes Accipitridae Goshawk 2 [6, 26]
(Accipiter gentilis)
France Passeriformes Corvidae Common magpie 1 [27]
(Pica pica)
Passeridae House sparrow
(Passer domesticus)
2005 Hungary Falconiformes Accipitridae Goshawk 2 [20, 28]
Sparrow hawk
(Accipiter nisus)
2007 Spain Falconiformes Accipitridae Golden eagle 1 [28]
(Aquila chrysaetos)
Bonelli’s eagle
(Aquila fasciata)
2008 Austria Falconiformes Accipitridae Sparrow hawk 2 [20, 28]
(Accipiter nisus)
(Accipiter gentilis)
Falconidae Gyrfalcon
(Falco rusticolus)
Psittaciformes Strigopidae Kea [28]
(Nestor notabilis)
Italy Charadriiformes Laridae Herring gull 1 [29]
(Larus argentatus)
Columbiformes Columbidae Pigeon
(Columba livia)
Passeriformes Corvidae Common magpie
(Pica pica)
Carrion crow
(Corvus corone)
Eurasian jay
(Garrulus glandarius)
Suliformes Phalacrocoracidae Great cormorant
(Phalacrocorax carbo)
2009 Austria Falconiformes Accipitridae Goshawk 2 [20]
(Accipiter gentilis)
2011 Italy Columbiformes Columbidae Collared dove 2 [18]
(Streptopelia decaocto)
2012 Italy Falconiformes Accipitridae Goshawk 2 [30]
(Accipiter gentilis)