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Table 4 Summary of clinical data associated with main pet bird zoonotic diseases [[41]]

From: Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

Disease Sensitive species Clinical signs Necroptic lesions Diagnostic (sample/analysis) Remarks and Pitfalls Treatment Human symptoms
Blood-sucking mites All Nestlings: weakness, anemia, death Adults: AA, respiratory distress, depression None Direct examination Dermanyssus gallinae: hide in cages anfractuosities and could not be found on birds themselves Ivermectine, permethrins in spray. Total disinfection of cages and facilities (see also chapter 4) Dermatitis, pruritus
Chlamydo-philosis Psittacines – canaries – finches AA, SBS, diarrhea, nasal discharge, dehydration, Ocular signs Air sac lesions, hepato-splenomegaly CSw, OSw, FE/BC, serology (paired serology 2 weeks apart),IMF, PCR Asymptomatic carriage (up to 40%), false negative Tetracyclins (1st of 2d generation) Flu-like syndrome, genital, articular, skin symptoms
Salmonellosis All (open-air aviaries) AA, WL, diarrhea, mild respiratory symptoms Congestive gastro-intestinal tract, hepato-splenomegaly CSw, FE Mostly in winter and in outdoor aviaries; hard to differentiate from pseudo-tuberculosis Not recommended (high probability of antibio-resistance) Gastro-intestinal infection
Tuberculosis Psittacines (canaries?) Progressive AA, WL, respiratory symptoms, long bone lesions Cachexia, osteolysis spots in long bones, lung lesions (non caseous) RX (bone lesions), OSw/MO (Ziehl-Nielsen), BC, HP Chronic development, sometimes during months to years; human origin infection Not recommended (high probability of antibio-resistance) Chronic pulmonary symptoms (caseous lung knots), generalized infection
Campylo-bacteriosis Estrildidae mostly. Apathy, yellow feces (solid or liquid) Cachexia, congestive gastro-intestinal tract, containing a yellow amylum or undigested seeds. FE/MO (curved rods in stained smears), BC Canaries and psittacines are asymptomatic carriers Not recommended (high probability of antibio-resistance) Gastro-intestinal infection, Gillain-Barré syndrome
Avian Influenza Passerines Sudden death, SBS, respiratory and neurological signs Dehydration, respiratory lesions OSw, CSw, BS/HP, PCR Mostly in outdoor aviaries None Mild to severe respiratory and systemic infection
West Nile fever All Ocular and neurological signs   OSw, CSw/PCR Mostly asymptomatic carriage None: prevention based on limitation of exposure to mosquitoes (vectors) Mild to severe respiratory and systemic infection, encephalitis, septicaemia, death
Newcastle disease All SBS, AA, ocular, respiratory and neurological signs Dehydration, respiratory lesions OSw, CSw/serology   None; prevention by vaccination Cunjunctivitis, mild flu-like symptoms
Toxoplasmosis Canary, finch, budgerigar minah SBS, AA, respiratory and neurological signs, blindness iridocyclitis, panophthalmia, catarrhal pneumonia, hepato-splenomegaly CSw/MO, serology, HP, PCR Systemic symptoms sometimes unseen; detection of the disease 3 months later (blindness) Trimetoprim-sulfamids Mostly asymptomatic. Abortion, congenital malformation.
Giardiosis (G. duodenalis)   None None     Sometimes asymptomatic. WL, diarrhoea, abdominal pain
Crypto-sporidiosis All Rare; acute diarrhoea Gastro-enteric lesions CsW/MO   Ronidazole Gastro-intestinal symptoms; liver, pancreas, respiratory tract lesions
Cryptococcosis Parrots, little pet birds Rare None CSw/MO Possible aerosol-borne contamination   Mostly asymptomatic. Respiratory and nervous symptoms.
  1. AA apathy-Anorexia, WL weight loss, FE feces examination, BC bacterial culture, MO microscopic observation, SBS sick bird signs (ruffled feathers, standing at the bottom of the cage, depression), HP histopathology (including immunocytochemistry), BS blood sample, CSw cloacal swab, OSw oral swab, IMF Immunofluorescence, PCR polymerase chain reaction.