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Table 3 Summary of main pet bird zoonotic diseases

From: Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

Disease Pathology Clinical issue Asymptomatic shedding Transmission route OIE listed disease Risk for humans*
Chlamydophilosis Systemic Fatal yes D/I/V Yes high
Salmonellosis Digestive to systemic Treatable yes D/I/V No moderate
Tuberculosis Respiratory to systemic Fatal no D/I/V Yes high
Campylobacteriosis Digestive to systemic Treatable yes D/I/V No moderate
Lyme disease   None no V No low
Avian Influenza Systemic Fatal no D/V? Yes high
West Nile fever and other arboviruses Respiratory to systemic Fatal yes V Yes (WNF) moderate
Avian Bornavirus Digestive/nervous to systemic Fatal no D No null
Newcastle disease Ocular To Systemic Mild to fatal yes D/I/V Yes low
Toxoplasmosis Digestive Digestive yes I No Null to low
Giardiosis (G. duodenalis) Digestive to systemic Treatable yes I No moderate
Cryptosporidiosis Digestive Treatable yes I No moderate
Cryptococcosis Digestive Treatable yes I No moderate
  1. *when handling a bird without hygienic precautions.
  2. Legend: D = direct contact; I = Indirect contact; V = vector-mediated contact.