Viral titres (EID
/mL) determined in EHE inoculated with (a) buccal and (b) cloacal swabs taken from the infected groups on 3 dpi and from the contact groups on 4 dpi. Infected broilers and naïve contact sparrows were housed together in cage 1, infected sparrows and naïve contact broilers were housed together in cage 2 and infected quail were housed in cage 3. The square below the axis represents the cages. Data are presented as box-and-whisker plot indicating maximum and minimum titres observed in six birds selected from each group that were positive for virus infection within the infected and contact groups. The horizontal line marks the median and the error bars indicate standard deviation. (*) indicates significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with both of the broiler and sparrow groups and (#) indicates significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with two sparrow groups. Differences were calculated using ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests.