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Table 1 Mycoplasma species with reported roles in apoptosis modulation.

From: Mycoplasma synoviae induces upregulation of apoptotic genes, secretion of nitric oxide and appearance of an apoptotic phenotype in infected chicken chondrocytes

Mycoplasma species Host species Disease(s) Apoptosis modulation mechanism Reference
M. hyorhinis swine Polyserositis, otitis media, arthritis, pneumonia Induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cell line AZ-521 by activation of NOS2 and caspase 3. [9]
M. bovis cattle Chronic unresponsive pneumonia, systemic infection, mastitis, arthritis Inhibits proliferation without apoptosis or effect on function of lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Induces apoptosis of bovine lymphocytes. [10, 11]
M. fermentans humans, mice Possible role in arthritis (found in patients) Reduces TNF-induced apoptosis upstream of caspase 8 in a myelomonocitic cell line. Prevents apoptosis of 32D cells by inducing NFκB gene upregulation. Promotes immortalization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture. Promotes proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. [1215]
M. alligatoris alligators Acute lethal cardiopulmonary disease Promotes CD95 expression and apoptosis of primary cardiac fibroblasts through modulation of CD44 receptor. [16]
M. hominis humans Possible role in arthritis (found in patients) Induces cell death in HeLa cells (through ATP release) and in 32D cells. [14, 17]
M. penetrans humans Possible role in arthritis (found in patients) Mediates NFκB activation in mouse macrophages and induces apoptosis. Prevents apoptosis of 32D cells by inducing NFκB. [14, 18]
M. arginini humans, rodents, camels, sheep, pigs Pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease, otitis Inhibits apoptosis of cells expressing toll-like receptors 2/6 by inducing constitutive NFkB activation and p53 suppression. Suppression of tp53 gene induces carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on rodent fibroblasts. [19, 20]
M. genitalium humans Urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, pneumonia, arthritis Does not affect 32D cells. Induces apoptosis in human monocytes THP-1 by activating NFκB. [14, 21]
M. pneumoniae humans Atypical pneumonia, possible role in arthritis Supports continous growth of 32D cells. [22]