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Table 2 Effect on bacterial counts in mouse spleen (CFU) after passive transfer of antibodies, cells or cytokines at different phases of smooth virulent Brucella infection

From: What have we learned from brucellosis in the mouse model?

Treatment Administration of treatment in relation to the time of infection Main effect in infected mice Brucella CFU in the spleena References
Acute before 14 days Chronic after 15 days
Rabbit anti-Brucella 2 h, 16 h before or 2 h after Immune serum from Brucella infected mice directed against a variety of different antigens [106]
Murine anti-Brucella 2 h, 16 h before or 2 h after Immune serum from Brucella infected mice directed against a variety of different antigens [84, 98, 107]
Anti-LPS 16 h before Immune murine sera against Brucella LPS [84]
Anti-O:9 16 h before Immune murine sera against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. It protects mice but to a lesser extent than anti-Brucella [84]
Anti-peptido-glycan 16 h before Polyclonal immune sera against peptidoglycan protein complex, probably contaminated with LPS [84]
Mabs anti-O- chain LPS 4 h before Several antibody isotypes reacting against A, M and C epitopes of the B. abortus O chain of LPS [35, 108110]
Mabs anti-Omps 24 h before Against Omps of molecular weight 10, 16.5, 19, 25–27, 31–34, 36–38 and 89 [109]
Mab-anti-Omp16 24 h before It induces lower protection than anti- O chain antibodies; IgG2a isotype ND [109]
Mab-anti-Omp25 24 h before It induces lower protection than anti-O chain antibodies; IgG2a isotype ND [109]
Mab-anti-Omp2b 4 h before Reacts against B. abortus Omp2b, which generally is not accessible in smooth bacteria ND [35]
Mab-anti-Omp31 24 h before It induces lower protection than anti-O chain LPS antibodies; IgG2a isotype ND [109]
Spleen cells Same day as infection Protection was efficiently transferred to naive mice using spleen cells from mice infected 5 or 12 weeks earlier ND [111]
Immune Tcells 2 h after infection It gave similar protection than CD8+ or CD4+ cells passively transferred. Immune cells from six week infected mice. Before 4 week there is no protection. ND [98, 112]
Immune CD4+T cells 2 h after infection It gave similar protection than CD8+ cells passively transferred. Immune cells from six week infected mice. Before 4 week there is no protection ND [107]
Immune CD8+T cells 2 h after infection It gave similar protection than CD4+ cells passively transferred. Immune cells from six week infected mice. Before 4 week there is no protection ND [107]
Serum anti-Brucella and T cells 2 h after infection Enhanced protection over administration of just T cells or Abs alone ND [107]
Immune T cell+anti- INF-γ Anti- INF-γ 1day before T cells with challenge It gave similar protection than passively transferred T cells ND [112]
Bovine Mø 1 day before infection Transferred to NK1.1 cell-depleted Rag-1−/− mice ND [60]
Bovine Mø+γδT cells 1 day before infection Transferred to NK1.1 cell-depleted Rag-1−/− mice ND [60]
Bovine Mø+CD4 T cells 1 day before infection Transferred to NK1.1 cell-depleted Rag-1−/− mice ND [60]
INF-γ 1 day before and 2 and 4 day after It Induces splenomegaly. Mice show enhanced peritoneal and splenic macrophage bactericidal activity ND [113]
IL-12 With the infection and every 3 days after The levels of INF-γ increase during the third week of infection [114]
IL-1α 4 h before CSF-1 increases in serum during the first 12 h. Colony forming cells increase in the spleen, mainly Mø and PMNs. Thirty days after treatment, the effect is terminated. [28]
Transfer factor At the sametime No effect in immune enhancement or antibody response ND [115]
Indomethacin Daily s. c. for 7 days Decrease of the cyclooxygenase activity by 80 to 90 % in spleen. Reduction of PGE2 ND [113]
Poly A:U 2 h before and 2, 4, and 6 days after Activation of NK cell activity ND [116]
Poly A:U At the sametime Polyadenylic acid-polyuridylic acid (poly A: U) is a non-toxic adjuvant that potentiates both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses [27, 117]
Cyclosporine Daily for 4 weeks It induces low inflammatory response in spleen and liver. No significant changes in spleen macrophage population ND [107]
Corticosteroids 24 h before It has a broad anti-inflammatory effects [3]
Anti-Ia 24 h before It depletes mostly B cells and some T cell subpopulation with “suppressor” activity ND [111]
Anti-CD8+ T cells 5 days before and 3 per week Depletion of CD8+ cells. DTH response was unaffected after treatment. Treatment abolished the IgG antibody response without affecting bacterial numbers. ND [111]
Anti-CD8+ T cells 1 day before and every 4 days after Depletion of CD8+ cells, significant increase of Møs in spleen. No significant effect in the number of CD4+, NK or γδ T cells ND [118]
Anti-CD8+ 1 day before and every 3 days after Depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes involved in cell mediated cytotoxicity of infected cells ND [119]
Anti-CD8+ 2 days before and 1,4,7 10 days after Depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes involved in cell mediated cytotoxicity of infected cells ND [56]
Anti-CD4+ 2 days before and 1,4,7 10 days after Influences the Th1 profile mainly INF-γ. It induces basal levels of IL2 and IL4 ND [56]
Anti-CD4+   Reduces granulomatous inflammation, which seems to be mediated mainly by CD4+ T cells ND [119]
Anti-CD25+ T cells 3 days before Depletion of CD4+ regulatory T cells. Increase levels of INF-γ in spleen cells ND [120]
Anti-NK1.1cells 24 h before Depletion of NK cells and activity ND [116]
Anti-asialo-GM1 24 h before and 3 day after Depletion of NK cells and activity ND [116]
Anti-PMN-RB6 24 h before and3, 6, 9 days after It depletes neutrophils and a small population of Møs. It does not affect the course of brucellosis. In some cases CFU decrease in numbers after 9 days of treatment ↔/↓ ND [48],unpublished results]
Anti-IL-10 1 day before and 4 days after The levels of INF-γ increase during the first week of infection ND [121]
Anti-IL-10 1 day before and 4 days after Augments the production of INF-γ in spleen cells of both, sensitive and resistant mouse strains ND [122]
Anti-IL-12 4 h before, or 2 days after, or 7 days after Decrease in spleen weight and spleen inflammation in relation to infected non-treated mice. There is granuloma reduction and low levels of INF-γ [123, 124]
Anti-IL-4 24 h before and 4 days after Removal of IL-4 It depresses the Th2 Ab response and indirectly may favor the Th1 response ND [122]
Anti-INF-γ 1 day before infection Reduces splenomegaly ND [112]
Anti-INF-γ 1 day before and every 5 days after No significant effect was observed even after administration with IL-12 ND [114]
Anti-INF-γ 1 day before and 4 days after It removes secreted INF-γ and depressed Th1 response ND [121]
Anti-INF-γ 24 h before and 4 days after It removes secreted INF-γ and depressed Th1 response ND [122]
Anti-TNF-α 1 day before and every 4 days after No significant effect in the number of PMNs, CD4, CD8, NK, γδ T cells or Møs is observed ND [118]
Anti-TNF-α 4 h before, or 2 days after, or 7 days after Decrease in spleen weight and spleen inflammation with respect to the infected non-treated mice. INF-γ is detected at normal levels [60, 63, 124]
Anti-TCRγδ The same day and 3 days after Removes Tγδ cells if innate immunity. Depletion has similar effect in IL/17Rα KO, INF-γ KO and GM-CSF KO mice ND [60]
  1. a (↑) Significantly higher numbers of CFU in spleen than in controls; (↓) significantly lower numbers of CFU in spleen than in controls; (↔) No significant number of CFU in spleen in relation to the controls; ND, not done.