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Table 3 Influenza receptor distributiona and pattern of viral attachmentb in the respiratory tractc of different avian species.

From: Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

  Tissues, types of receptor/virus bindingd
Species Nasal Cavity e Trachea Lung
  α-2,3 H4N5 α-2,6 H1N1 α-2,3 H4N5 α-2,6 H1N1 α-2,3 H4N5 α-2,6 H1N1
Chicken ++ ++f + ++ + ++ + + +++ + ++ +
Quail + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + ++g + +
Partridge ++ ++ + + + ++ - - - + + -
Turkey + ++ ++ + ++ ++ + - + + +++ +
Pheasant + +++ ++ + + +++ ++ + + + + -
Ostrich ++ +++ - - + ++ - - + + - -
Mallard + + + - + +++ ++ + + ++ g + -
  1. a The distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 influenza receptors was done using lectin immunohistochemistry.
  2. b The pattern of viral attachment was performed using virus histochemistry and the A/Mallard/Netherlands/13/08 (H4N5) and A/Netherlands/35/05 (H1N1) viruses.
  3. c Media of the results obtained in the epithelia lining (ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells).
  4. d -: negative; +: low; ++: moderate; +++: strong.
  5. e 'Nasal Cavity' includes the following: nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses.
  6. f Virus binding mainly in infraorbital sinuses.
  7. g Virus binding mainly in bronchi.