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Table 2 Distribution of Sia α-2,3 Gal and Sia α-2,6 Gal receptorsa in the intestinal tract of seven avian species.

From: Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

Tissues, cell type Species, receptor typeb
  Chicken Common Quail Red-legged Partridge Turkey Golden Pheasant Ostrich Mallard
  α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6
Duodenum               
Columnar epithelial cells ++ - + + - - + - ++ + + - +++ -
Goblet cells +++ - ++ + - + - - + + ++ - - -
GALT lymphocytes - + - + + + + + + + - + + -
Jejunum-Ileum               
Columnar epithelial cells ++ + + + + - + - ++ + + - +++ -
Goblet cells +++ - ++ - - - + - + + ++ - - -
Cecum               
Columnar epithelial cells + + ++ ++ + + - + ++ + + - +++ -
Goblet cells - - - + - - - - + ++ ++ - - -
GALT lymphocytes - ++ - + - + - + - + - + - -
Colon               
Columnar epithelial cells + - ++ + + - + + ++ + - - +++ -
Goblet cells - - - + - + - - - ++ ++ - - -
GALT lymphocytes - ++ - - - - + - + + - + - -
  1. a The distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 influenza receptors was done using lectin immunohistochemistry.
  2. b -: negative; +: low; ++: moderate; +++: strong.