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Table 1 Distribution of Sia α-2,3 Gal and Sia α-2,6 Gal receptorsa in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of seven avian species.

From: Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

Tissue, cell type Species, receptor typeb
  Chicken Common Quail Red-legged Partridge Turkey Golden Pheasant Ostrich Mallard
  α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6 α-2,3 α-2,6
Nasal Cavity               
Respiratory Epithelium               
Ciliated epithelial cells +++ ++ + +++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ - + +
Non-ciliated epithelial cells + - + ++ + + - + + + + - ++ -
Olfactory Epithelium               
Olfactory epithelial cells +++ + + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ - - -
Bowman gland epithelium +++ + ++ ++ ++ + - + + - - - ++ +
Adjacent structures               
Nasal gland epithelium + ++ ++ + + + ++ ++ ++ + nd nd ++ +
Salivary gland epithelium ++ + +++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + +++ - ++ +
Trachea               
Ciliated epithelial cells + + + +++ + - +++ - - ++ + - ++ ++
Goblet cells - + + + + - - + + + + - - ++
Mucous gland epithelium ++ + + + + + + + + + + - - -
Lung               
Bronchial epithelial cells +++ +++ + +++ - - ++ +++ + + + - + +
Parabronchial epithelial cells +++ - + - - - - +++ + - + - + -
Air capillary cells - - + - - + - - - + + - - -
  1. a The distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 influenza receptors was evaluated using lectin immunohistochemistry.
  2. b -: negative; +: low; ++: moderate; +++: strong; nd: not determined.