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Table 2 Overview of the different commercialized and candidate West Nile vaccines.

From: Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

Name Viral antigen(s) State of development Reference
West Nile-Innovator
RecombiTek (Merial)
Whole virus
WNV prM-E in
canarypox virus
Commercialized for horses
Commercialized for horses
West Nile-Innovator DNA Plasmid DNA prM/E Licensed for horses [23]
WNV prM-E in yellow fever backbone Commercialized for horses
(recalled in 2010)
Vetera West Nile vaccine
(Boehringer Ingelheim)
Killed virus Commercialized for horses  
Yellow fever PrM-E substituted by WNV prM-E Phase II human clinical trial [5, 8]
WN-DEN4 WNV prM-E in dengue-4 backbone Phase II human clinical trial [72]
Plasmid encoding WNV prM and E Phase I human clinical trial [41]
STF2Δ.EIII S. typhimurium flagellin fused to E domain III Evaluated in mice [55]
rWNV-ET Truncated protein E Evaluated in mice and horses [19, 42]
SRIP prM-E VLPs Evaluated in mice and horses [12]
RepliVAX WN Single-cycle West Nile virus Evaluated in mice [118], hamsters [119], non-human primates [120]  
  Plasmid encoding E domain III fused to P28 Evaluated in mice [22]
DIII-C-AP205 E domain III coupled to bacteriophage AP205 Evaluated in mice [87]
FLU-NA-DIII E domain III inserted into NA of influenza Evaluated in mice [54]
CAdVax-WNVII C, preM, E and NS1 expressed in adenovirus Evaluated in mice [81]