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Table 1 Definition, host range and virulence properties of enteric and enterotoxaemic E. coli in animals and humans (from [1, 2, 4, 1216])

From: O157:H7 and O104:H4 Vero/Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli outbreaks: respective role of cattle and humans

Name (Acronym) * Target host range Diseases Virulence Remarks
Enteroinvasive (EIEC) Humans, primates Dysentery Invasion of and multiplication in the enterocytes Similar to Shigella sp.
Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Pigs, ruminants, humans (more rarely dogs) Traveller's diarrhoea; profuse neonatal diarrhoea in babies, calves and piglets; post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets Fimbrial adhesins (F2 to F6, F17, F18, F41, ...); heat-stable (STa, STb) and heat-labile (LT1, LT2) enterotoxins  
Enteropathogenic (EPEC) Humans, all mammals Diarrhoea Attaching and effacing (AE) lesion; type 4 BFP fimbriae by typical (t) EPEC of humans Localized adherence (LA) of tEPEC on cells in culture; LA-like adherence of atypical (a) EPEC at the cell surface
Verotoxigenic or Shigatoxigenic (VTEC or STEC) * Humans, piglets Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans; oedema disease in piglets Verotoxins (Vtx); afimbrial (Saa by human or AIDA by porcine VTEC) and fimbrial (F18 by porcine VTEC) adhesins Ruminants can be healthy carriers of human VTEC (= reservoir host)
Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) * Humans (haemorrhagic) colitis and HUS in humans; diarrhoea in young calves Vtx and AE lesion Ruminants can be healthy carriers of human EHEC (= reservoir host)
Enteroadherent or Enteroaggregative (EAEC or EAggEC) Humans (sporadically in animals) Diarrhoea Human EAggEC: small fimbrial adhesins (AAF/Hda); toxins (Pet, EAST1, ShET1); transcriptional activator gene (aggR) Aggregative "stacked brick" adherence (AggA) on cells in culture; animal EAggEC are different from human EAggEC
Diffusely adherent (DAEC) Humans, animals Diarrhoea; extra-intestinal infections (urinary tract infections, septicaemia) Diffuse adherence (DA) on cell culture mediated by adhesins of the AFimbrial Adhesin (AFA) family, or by AIDA adhesin  
Necrotoxigenic (NTEC) Humans, animals (NTEC1); ruminants (NTEC2) Diarrhoea; extra-intestinal infections (urinary tract infections, septicaemia) Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors (CNF) 1 or 2; different fimbrial (Pap, Sfa and/or F17) and/or afimbrial adhesins (AFA family)  
  1. * see Introduction and Section 2.1 for the definitions of the names and acronyms of pathogenic E. coli strains.