Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopical images of bovine vaginal epithelium. Pavement-like cells containing microvilli were seen at all time points (0 h-96 h) of in vitro culture when evaluating the epithelial surface by means of scanning electron microscopy (a-b). Cells are aligned with clear microridges (c, indicated by white arrows). Epithelial integrity and structure was maintained at all time points (0 h-96 h) as seen with transmission electron microscopy (d-e). Starting from 0 h of cultivation, small intercellular spaces between basal cells were observed (f, indicated by black arrows). The dotted line represents the basement membrane (BM).