Effect of cortisol on the viability of Salmonella infected and uninfected macrophages and IPEC-J2 cells. Percentage viability (%) of Salmonella Typhimurium infected and uninfected (A) PAM and (B) IPEC-J2 cells, exposed to different concentrations of cortisol (0.001-100 μM). Twenty-four hours after incubation with cortisol, the cytotoxic effect was determined by neutral red assay. Results represent the means of three independent experiments conducted in triplicate and their standard deviation. Superscript (*) refers to a significant difference compared to control uninfected IPEC-J2 cells (p ≤ 0.05).