Review

Criteria

Reviews are summaries of recent insights in specific research areas within the scope of Veterinary Research.

Key aims of Reviews are to provide systematic and substantial coverage of mature subjects and evaluations of progress in specified areas.

Veterinary Research strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely should be available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible. Please see Springer Nature’s information on recommended repositories.

Cover Letter

Please provide a list of up to three potential reviewers in your cover letter. You should not suggest recent collaborators or colleagues who work in the same institution as yourselves. When giving the names of 3 independent possible reviewers, please do not give exclusively the names of people from your own country. You should provide institutional email addresses where possible, or information which will help the Editor to verify the identity of the reviewer (for example an ORCID or Scopus ID). See our Editorial policies for guidance on suggesting peer reviewers, and Submission Guidelines for further information on what you should include in your cover letter.

Preparing your manuscript

Length of article

Reviews should not exceed 50 pages. The journal allows a maximum of 150 references for Review articles.

Title page

The title page should:

  • provide the title of the article
  • list the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
  • indicate the corresponding author

Please note:

  • if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below. Please note that the individual names may not be included in the PubMed record at the time a published article is initially included in PubMed as it takes PubMed additional time to code this information.
  • abbreviations within the title should be avoided

Table of contents

This will list all the sections and subsections in order of appearance, starting with individual headings.

Abstract

A short, unstructured, single paragraph summary, no more than 350 words, of the major points raised, making evident the key work highlighted in the article.

Keywords

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.

Introduction

This section should put the work in adequate context and should be comprehensible to non-experts some of who may not have a scientific or technological background.

Review

This should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.

Conclusions

This should state clearly the main conclusions of the review and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance.

Declarations

List of abbreviations

If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Manuscripts reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must:

  • include a statement on ethics approval and consent (even where the need for approval was waived)
  • include the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate

Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval.

See our editorial policies for more information.

If your manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue, this section is not applicable to your submission. Please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Consent for publication

If your manuscript contains any individual person’s data in any form (including individual details, images or videos), consent to publish must be obtained from that person, or in the case of children, their parent or legal guardian. All presentations of case reports must have consent to publish. You can use your institutional consent form or our consent form if you prefer. You should not send the form to us on submission, but we may request to see a copy at any stage (including after publication).

See our editorial policies for more information on consent for publication.

If your manuscript does not contain any individual persons data, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Availability of data and materials

For all journals, BioMed Central strongly encourages all datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely to be either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main paper or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spreadsheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see the list of recommended repositories in our editorial policies.

For some journals, deposition of the data on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely is an absolute requirement. Please check the Criteria section for this article type (located at the top of this page) for journal specific policies.

For all journals, authors must include an “Availability of data and materials” section in their article detailing where the data supporting their findings can be found. If you do not wish to share your data, please state that data will not be shared, and state the reason.

For information on how to cite your data and format this section, see preparing your manuscript.

Competing interests

All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section. See our editorial policies for a full explanation of competing interests. If you are unsure whether you or any of your co-authors have a competing interest please contact the editorial office.

Funding

All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.

Authors' contributions

The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. Guidance and criteria for authorship can be found in our editorial policies.

Acknowledgements

Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.

Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.

See our editorial policies for a full explanation of acknowledgements and authorship criteria.

Group authorship: if you would like the names of the individual members of a collaboration group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please ensure that the title of the collaboration group is included on the title page and in the submission system and also include collaborating author names as the last paragraph of the “Acknowledgements” section. Please add authors in the format First Name, Middle initial(s) (optional), Last Name. You can add institution or country information for each author if you wish, but this should be consistent across all authors.

Please note that individual names may not be present in the PubMed record at the time a published article is initially included in PubMed as it takes PubMed additional time to code this information.

Authors' information

You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader's interpretation of the article, and understand the standpoint of the author(s). This may include details about the authors' qualifications, current positions they hold at institutions or societies, or any other relevant background information. Please refer to authors using their initials. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests.

Endnotes

Endnotes should be designated within the text using a superscript lowercase letter and all notes (along with their corresponding letter) should be included in the Endnotes section. Please format this section in a paragraph rather than a list.

This section provides general style and formatting information only. Formatting guidelines for specific article types can be found below.

Preparing main manuscript text

Manuscripts must be written in concise English. For help on scientific writing, or preparing your manuscript in English, please see Springer's Author Academy.

Quick points:

  • Use double line spacing
  • Include line and page numbering
  • Use SI units: Please ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF
  • Do not use page breaks in your manuscript

File formats

The following word processor file formats are acceptable for the main manuscript document:

  • Microsoft word (DOC, DOCX)
  • Rich text format (RTF)

Please note: editable files are required for processing in production. If your manuscript contains any non-editable files (such as PDFs) you will be required to re-submit an editable file if your manuscript is accepted.

Note that figures must be submitted as separate image files, not as part of the submitted manuscript file.

Style and language

Manuscripts submitted to most journals do not undergo copyediting for style and language. Please check individual journal ‘About’ pages to confirm whether accepted manuscripts will undergo copyediting for style and language.

You can use a professional language editing service of your choice if you want to. Such services include:

Contact the service providers directly to make arrangements for editing, and for pricing and payment details. Use of an editing service is neither a requirement nor a guarantee of acceptance for publication.

For authors from China
这些语言润色服务拥有在您研究领域的英文母语专家:
• 访问理文编辑语言润色网站争取一份独家优惠折扣
• 访问Nature出版集团语言润色服务并使用优惠码:LE_BM15
语言润色服务的使用并不是一项必选服务,也无法保证一定会接受发表。

For authors from Japan
こちらの英文校正会社では、ネイティブの研究分野の専門家が研究論文を校正します
エダンズグループジャパンではBioMed Centralとのパートナーシップ割引きがご利用いただけます
NPG Language Editingでは、こちらの割引きコードをご利用いただけます: LE_BM15
英文校正サービスのご利用は、論文の採用を保証するものではありません。

For authors from Korea
아래 에디팅 서비스에서 해당 주제분야의 Native English 전문에디터를 만나실 수 있습니다.
에단즈 에디팅 웹사이트를 방문하여 할인을 받으실 수 있습니다.
네이쳐 에디팅을 방문하여 할인 코드 : LE_BM15 를 이용하세요.
에디팅 서비스 이용은 출판을 위한 필수조건이 아니며 논문채택을 보장하는 것이 아님을 알려드립니다.

 

Data and materials

For all journals, BioMed Central strongly encourages all datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely to be either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main paper or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spread sheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see the list of recommended repositories in our editorial policies.

For some journals, deposition of the data on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely is an absolute requirement. Please check the Instructions for Authors for the relevant journal and article type for journal specific policies.

For all manuscripts, information about data availability should be detailed in an ‘Availability of data and materials’ section. For more information on the content of this section, please see the Declarations section of the relevant journal’s Instruction for Authors. For more information on BioMed Central's policies on data availability, please see our editorial policies.

Formatting the 'Availability of data and materials' section of your manuscript

The following format for the 'Availability of data and materials section of your manuscript should be used:

"The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) available in the [repository name] repository, [unique persistent identifier and hyperlink to dataset(s) in http:// format]."

The following format is required when data are included as additional files:

"The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) included within the article (and its additional file(s))."

For databases, this section should state the web/ftp address at which the database is available and any restrictions to its use by non-academics.

For software, this section should include:

  • Project name: e.g. My bioinformatics project
  • Project home page: e.g. http://sourceforge.net/projects/mged
  • Archived version: DOI or unique identifier of archived software or code in repository (e.g. enodo)
  • Operating system(s): e.g. Platform independent
  • Programming language: e.g. Java
  • Other requirements: e.g. Java 1.3.1 or higher, Tomcat 4.0 or higher
  • License: e.g. GNU GPL, FreeBSD etc.
  • Any restrictions to use by non-academics: e.g. licence needed

Information on available repositories for other types of scientific data, including clinical data, can be found in our editorial policies.

 References

See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice.

All references, including URLs, must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets, in the order in which they are cited in the text, followed by any in tables or legends. Each reference must have an individual reference number. Please avoid excessive referencing. The journal allows a maximum of 70 references for Research articles. If automatic numbering systems are used, the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

Only articles and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited; unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished observations" or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the responsibility of the author. Footnotes are not allowed, but endnotes are permitted. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE. Citations in the reference list should include all named authors, up to the first 30 before adding 'et al.'..

Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers' assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.

Examples of the Veterinary Research reference style are shown below. Please ensure that the reference style is followed precisely; if the references are not in the correct style they may have to be retyped and carefully proofread.

All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.

Authors may wish to make use of reference management software to ensure that reference lists are correctly formatted. An example of such software is Papers, which is part of Springer Science+Business Media.
Examples of the Veterinary Research reference style

Article within a journal
Mihovilovic MD, Leisch HG, Mereiter K (2004) Microwave-mediated intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization of biodihydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives. Tetrahedron Lett 45:7087-7090

Article within a journal supplement
Fubini B (1997) Surface reactivity in the pathogenic response to particulates. Environ Health Perspect 105(Suppl 5):1013–1020

In press article
Van Damme S, Langenaeker W, Bultinck P (2012) Prediction of Blood-brain partitioning: a model based on ab initio calculated quantum chemical descriptors. Journal of Molecular graphics and modeling, in press

Published abstract
Herres-Pawlis S, Haase R, Bienemann O (2011) Dissecting the role of guanidine copper complexes in atom transfer radical polymerization by density functional theory [abstract] J Cheminf 3(Suppl1):P28

Article within conference proceedings
Schurath U, Wipprecht V (1980) Reactions of peroxiacyl radicals. In: Versino B, Ott H (eds) Proceedings of the 1st European Symposium on the Physico-Chemical Behavior of Atmospheric Pollutants, Ispra, October 1979. Commission of the European Communities, pp 157-166.

Book chapter, or article within a book
Ellis GP (1977) The chemistry of heterocyclic compounds. In: Weissberger A, Taylor ECE (eds) Chromene, Chromanes and Chromone, Volume 2. Wiley, New York

Whole issue of journal
Weckhuysen B (Ed) (2010) In-situ characterisation of heterogeneous catalysts. Chem Soc Rev 39:4541-5072

Whole conference proceedings
Brown S, Clarke I, Williams P (eds) (2001) Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, Palm Springs, California, USA.

Complete book
Görög S (1994) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry in Pharmaceutical Analysis. CRC Press, New York

Monograph or book in a series
Fujiki M (2008) Helix Generation, Amplification, Switching, and Memory of Chromophoric Polymers. In: Soai K (ed) Amplification of Chirality. Topics in Current Chemistry, vol 284. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 119-186

Book with institutional author
IUPAC (1979) Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. Pergamon Press, Oxford

PhD thesis
Ravi Kishore VVN (2004) Photo-luminescence and electron-luminescence of hydroxy quinoline based organic semiconductors. PhD Thesis, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences

Link / URL
The Chemistry Development Kit. http://sourceforge.net/projects/cdk. Accessed 25 Dec 2012

Link / URL with author(s)
Pichon A (2010) Debating cyclobutadiene. http:// blogs.nature.com/thescepticalchymist/2010/11/debating_cyclobutadiene.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2011

Dataset with persistent identifier
Bradley JC, Neylon C, Guha R, Williams AJ, Hooker B, Lang ASID, Friesen B, Bohinski T, Bulger D, Federici M, Hale J, Mancinelli J, Mirza KB, Moritz MJ, Rein D, Tchakounte C, Truong HT (2010) Open Notebook Science Challenge: Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Organic Solvents. Nature Precedings. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npre.2010.4243.3

What should be cited?

Only articles, clinical trial registration records and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited.

Unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished observations" or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the responsibility of the author. Footnotes are not allowed, but endnotes are permitted. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers' assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.

Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.

Authors may wish to make use of reference management software to ensure that reference lists are correctly formatted. An example of such software is Papers, which is part of Springer Science+Business Media

Preparing figures

Back to top

When preparing figures, please follow the formatting instructions below.

  • Figures should be provided as separate files, not embedded in the main manuscript file.
  • Each figure of a manuscript should be submitted as a single file that fits on a single page in portrait format.
  • Tables should NOT be submitted as figures but should be included in the main manuscript file.
  • Multi-panel figures (those with parts a, b, c, d etc.) should be submitted as a single composite file that contains all parts of the figure.
  • Figures should be numbered in the order they are first mentioned in the text, and uploaded in this order.
  • Figures should be uploaded in the correct orientation.
  • Figure titles (max 15 words) and legends (max 300 words) should be provided in the main manuscript, not in the graphic file.
  • Figure keys should be incorporated into the graphic, not into the legend of the figure.
  • Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. Cropping figures improves accuracy when placing the figure in combination with other elements when the accepted manuscript is prepared for publication on our site. For more information on individual figure file formats, see our detailed instructions.
  • Individual figure files should not exceed 10 MB. If a suitable format is chosen, this file size is adequate for extremely high quality figures.
  • Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures (or tables) that have previously been published elsewhere. In order for all figures to be open access, authors must have permission from the rights holder if they wish to include images that have been published elsewhere in non open access journals. Permission should be indicated in the figure legend, and the original source included in the reference list.

Figure file types

We accept the following file formats for figures:

  • EPS (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • PDF (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • Microsoft Word (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF (suitable for images)
  • JPEG (suitable for photographic images, less suitable for graphical images)
  • PNG (suitable for images)
  • BMP (suitable for images)
  • CDX (ChemDraw - suitable for molecular structures)

For information and suggestions of suitable file formats for specific figure types, please see our author academy.

Figure size and resolution

Figures are resized during publication of the final full text and PDF versions to conform to the BioMed Central standard dimensions, which are detailed below.

Figures on the web:

  • width of 600 pixels (standard), 1200 pixels (high resolution).

Figures in the final PDF version:

  • width of 85 mm for half page width figure
  • width of 170 mm for full page width figure
  • maximum height of 225 mm for figure and legend
  • image resolution of approximately 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size

Figures should be designed such that all information, including text, is legible at these dimensions. All lines should be wider than 0.25 pt when constrained to standard figure widths. All fonts must be embedded.

Figure file compression

 

  • Vector figures should if possible be submitted as PDF files, which are usually more compact than EPS files.
  • TIFF files should be saved with LZW compression, which is lossless (decreases file size without decreasing quality) in order to minimize upload time.
  • JPEG files should be saved at maximum quality.
  • Conversion of images between file types (especially lossy formats such as JPEG) should be kept to a minimum to avoid degradation of quality.

If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with figures, please contact the customer service team at info@biomedcentral.com.

Preparing tables

When preparing tables, please follow the formatting instructions below.

  • Tables should be numbered and cited in the text in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, Table 2 etc.).
  • Tables must be provided as complete sets, tables listed as Table 1A, Table 1B etc, will not be accepted.
  • All tables less than 2 pages (around 90 rows) should be placed at the end of the document text file, in A4 portrait or landscape format. Please include the captions with the tables at the end of the main manuscript (1 table per page; please insert a page break between each table)
  • Please cite or indicate where the table should appear at the relevant location in the text file so that the table can be added in the correct place during production.
  • Large datasets or tables greater than 2 pages in length should be included as an additional file. Please see the section below for more information.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls ) or comma separated values (.csv). Please use the standard file extensions.
  • Table titles (max 15 words) should be included above the table, and legends (max 300 words) should be included underneath the table.
  • Tables should not be embedded as figures or spreadsheet files, but should be formatted using ‘Table object’ function in your word processing program.
  • Color and shading may not be used. Parts of the table can be highlighted using superscript, numbering, lettering, symbols or bold text, the meaning of which should be explained in a table legend.
  • Commas should not be used to indicate numerical values.

If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with tables, please contact the customer service team at info@biomedcentral.com.

Preparing additional files

As the length and quantity of data is not restricted for many article types, authors can provide datasets, tables, movies, or other information as additional files.

All Additional files will be published along with the accepted article. Do not include files such as patient consent forms, certificates of language editing, or revised versions of the main manuscript document with tracked changes. Such files, if requested, should be sent by email to the journal’s editorial email address, quoting the manuscript reference number.

If additional material is provided, please list the following information in a separate section of the manuscript text, immediately following the tables (if any):

  • File name (e.g. Additional file 1)
  • Title of data
  • Description of data.

Additional files should be named "Additional file 1" and so on and should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'An additional movie file shows this in more detail (see Additional file 1)'.

Results that would otherwise be indicated as "data not shown" should be included as additional files. Since many web links and URLs rapidly become broken, BioMed Central requires that supporting data are included as additional files, or deposited in a recognized repository. Please do not link to data on a personal/departmental website. Do not include any individual participant details. The maximum file size for additional files is 20 MB each, and files will be virus-scanned on submission. Each additional file should be cited in sequence within the main body of text.

 References

See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice.

All references, including URLs, must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets, in the order in which they are cited in the text, followed by any in tables or legends. Each reference must have an individual reference number. Please avoid excessive referencing. The journal allows a maximum of 100 references for Review articles. If automatic numbering systems are used, the reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

Only articles and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited; unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished observations" or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the responsibility of the author. Footnotes are not allowed, but endnotes are permitted. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE. Citations in the reference list should include all named authors, up to the first 30 before adding 'et al.'..

Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers' assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.

Examples of the Veterinary Research reference style are shown below. Please ensure that the reference style is followed precisely; if the references are not in the correct style they may have to be retyped and carefully proofread.

All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.

Authors may wish to make use of reference management software to ensure that reference lists are correctly formatted. An example of such software is Papers, which is part of Springer Science+Business Media.
Examples of the Veterinary Research reference style

Article within a journal
Mihovilovic MD, Leisch HG, Mereiter K (2004) Microwave-mediated intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization of biodihydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives. Tetrahedron Lett 45:7087-7090

Article within a journal supplement
Fubini B (1997) Surface reactivity in the pathogenic response to particulates. Environ Health Perspect 105(Suppl 5):1013–1020

In press article
Van Damme S, Langenaeker W, Bultinck P (2012) Prediction of Blood-brain partitioning: a model based on ab initio calculated quantum chemical descriptors. Journal of Molecular graphics and modeling, in press

Published abstract
Herres-Pawlis S, Haase R, Bienemann O (2011) Dissecting the role of guanidine copper complexes in atom transfer radical polymerization by density functional theory [abstract] J Cheminf 3(Suppl1):P28

Article within conference proceedings
Schurath U, Wipprecht V (1980) Reactions of peroxiacyl radicals. In: Versino B, Ott H (eds) Proceedings of the 1st European Symposium on the Physico-Chemical Behavior of Atmospheric Pollutants, Ispra, October 1979. Commission of the European Communities, pp 157-166.

Book chapter, or article within a book
Ellis GP (1977) The chemistry of heterocyclic compounds. In: Weissberger A, Taylor ECE (eds) Chromene, Chromanes and Chromone, Volume 2. Wiley, New York

Whole issue of journal
Weckhuysen B (Ed) (2010) In-situ characterisation of heterogeneous catalysts. Chem Soc Rev 39:4541-5072

Whole conference proceedings
Brown S, Clarke I, Williams P (eds) (2001) Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine, Palm Springs, California, USA.

Complete book
Görög S (1994) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry in Pharmaceutical Analysis. CRC Press, New York

Monograph or book in a series
Fujiki M (2008) Helix Generation, Amplification, Switching, and Memory of Chromophoric Polymers. In: Soai K (ed) Amplification of Chirality. Topics in Current Chemistry, vol 284. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 119-186

Book with institutional author
IUPAC (1979) Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. Pergamon Press, Oxford

PhD thesis
Ravi Kishore VVN (2004) Photo-luminescence and electron-luminescence of hydroxy quinoline based organic semiconductors. PhD Thesis, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences

Link / URL
The Chemistry Development Kit. http://sourceforge.net/projects/cdk. Accessed 25 Dec 2012

Link / URL with author(s)
Pichon A (2010) Debating cyclobutadiene. http:// blogs.nature.com/thescepticalchymist/2010/11/debating_cyclobutadiene.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2011

Dataset with persistent identifier
Bradley JC, Neylon C, Guha R, Williams AJ, Hooker B, Lang ASID, Friesen B, Bohinski T, Bulger D, Federici M, Hale J, Mancinelli J, Mirza KB, Moritz MJ, Rein D, Tchakounte C, Truong HT (2010) Open Notebook Science Challenge: Solubilities of Organic Compounds in Organic Solvents. Nature Precedings. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npre.2010.4243.3

What should be cited?

Only articles, clinical trial registration records and abstracts that have been published or are in press, or are available through public e-print/preprint servers, may be cited.

Unpublished abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications should not be included in the reference list, but may be included in the text and referred to as "unpublished observations" or "personal communications" giving the names of the involved researchers. Obtaining permission to quote personal communications and unpublished data from the cited colleagues is the responsibility of the author. Footnotes are not allowed, but endnotes are permitted. Journal abbreviations follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

Any in press articles cited within the references and necessary for the reviewers' assessment of the manuscript should be made available if requested by the editorial office.

Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.

Authors may wish to make use of reference management software to ensure that reference lists are correctly formatted. An example of such software is Papers, which is part of Springer Science+Business Media

Submit your manuscript in Editorial Manager

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