Contingency nature of Helicobacter bizzozeronii oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H-nitroreductase (HBZC1_00960) and its role in metronidazole resistance
© Kondadi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 28 March 2013
Accepted: 18 June 2013
Published: 16 July 2013
Genomic analysis of a metronidazole resistant H. bizzozeronii strain revealed a frame length extension of the oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H-nitroreductase HBZC1_00960 (RdxA), associated with the disruption of the C-terminal cysteine-containing conserved region (IACLXALGK). This was the result of the extension (from C8 to C9) of a simple sequence cytosine repeat (SSCR) located in the 3’ of the gene. A 3' SSCR is also present in the rdxA homolog of H. heilmannii sensu stricto, but not in H. pylori. We showed that in the majority of in vitro spontaneous H. bizzozeronii metronidazole resistant mutants, the extension of the 3′ SSCR of rdxA was the only mutation observed. In addition, we observed that H. bizzozeronii ΔrdxA mutant strain showed the same MIC value of metronidazole observed in the spontaneous mutants. These data indicate that loss of function mutations in rdxA and in particular the disruption of the conserved region IACLXALGK is associated with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole in H. bizzozeronii. Slipped-strand mispairing of the SSCR located in the 3′ of the H. bizzozeronii rdxA appears to be the main mechanism. We also observed that H. bizzozeronii acquires resistance to metronidazole at high mutation rate, and that serial passages in vitro without selection induced an increased level of susceptibility. In conclusion, contrary to what was previously described in H. pylori, the H. bizzozeronii rdxA appears to be a contingency gene which undergoes phase variation. The contingency nature of rdxA should be carefully considered when metronidazole is used in the treatment of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis.
The human-adapted pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infections worldwide, and it is recognized as an etiologic agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Humans can also be sporadically infected by non-H. pylori gastric Helicobacter species, referred to as H. heilmannii sensu lato, that are also able to cause gastritis. H. heilmannii s.l. comprises very fastidious zoonotic Helicobacter species, including H. bizzozeronii, H. felis, H. suis and H. heilmannii sensu stricto, which are all known to colonize the gastric mucosa of different animal species. Although the absence of a simple laboratory test have lead to an underestimation of the infection rate, H. heilmannii s.l. is consider to be a rare type of zoonosis, with prevalence ranging between 0.2% and 6.5% depending of the geographic region[2–5]. Due to the rarity of these infections and the peculiar growth requirements of H. heilmannii s.l., which limits the isolation of pure cultures, very little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in these species[6–9]. Therefore, the optimal treatment regimen for these infections remains unclear, and conventional H. pylori eradication treatment is generally recommended[10, 11]. The standard treatment for H. pylori appears to eradicate H. heilmannii s.l. infection in most patients[3, 5, 10–13]. However, cases of failed treatment have been reported[7, 14]. The peculiar growth requirements of H. heilmannii s.l. have limited the application of molecular tools, affecting studies on the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in these species and hampering the adoption of new, specific strategies to treat patients after a failed treatment.
To better understand the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in H. heilmannii s.l., we investigated the potential reasons behind the failed treatment of a H. bizzozeronii infection in a 47 year-old woman suffering with chronic gastritis. A few months after the diagnosis of H. bizzozeronii-associated gastritis, the patient was treated with a seven-day course of lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily, tetracycline 500 mg four times daily and metronidazole 400 mg three times daily. After the treatment, the patient’s symptoms became less severe and the patient started to gain weight. However, she continued to suffer from mild nausea associated with eating warm foods, and, after a few months, H. bizzozeronii was re-isolated from antrum samples obtained in a follow-up endoscopy. The H. bizzozeronii obtained before the treatment was resistant to tetracycline, but a heterogeneous resistance profile for metronidazole was observed. In fact, H. bizzozeronii CIII-1ORG (an isolate obtained from the corpus of the patient‘s stomach before the treatment) showed an MIC of metronidazole equal to 32 μg/mL, but the MIC value for its derived clone CIII-1GEN, obtained by amplification of a single colony, was 4 μg/mL. These data indicated the simultaneous presence of metronidazole susceptible and resistant H. bizzozeronii variants before the treatment. After treatment, the isolated H. bizzozeronii (antrum T1) was resistant to both drugs. Metronidazole is considered a prodrug whose activation requires intracellular reduction by anaerobic or microaerobic microorganisms; this results in the production of bactericidal cytotoxic radicals[16, 17]. In H. pylori the main causes of metronidazole resistance are mutations inactivating two nitroreducate genes: rdxA and frxA[16, 17]. However conflicting evidence correlating the oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase RdxA and/or the NAD(P)H flavin oxidoreductase FrxA with the resistant phenotype, indicate that the molecular basis of resistance in this species remains unclear[16, 17].
A comparative genomic analysis of the H. bizzozeronii isolates obtained before and after the treatment showed that, among the five putative nitroreductases identified in the genome of H. bizzozeronii CIII-1GEN, only the oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H-nitroreductase HBZC1_00960, showing 47% identity with H. pylori RdxA HP0954, was affected.
This study investigates the role of HBZC1_00960 (H. bizzozeronii RdxA homolog) in the molecular mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in H. bizzozeronii.
Materials and methods
Bacterial strains, growth conditions, DNA manipulations and PCR
Oligonucleotides used in this study
Antimicrobial susceptibility of H. bizzozeronii
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of metronidazole (Sigma-Aldrich) was estimated using the agar dilution method. Briefly, HP agar plates supplemented with serial dilutions of the antibiotics were inoculated with 10 μL bacterial inoculums (corresponding to approximately 103 cfu). The inoculum was prepared by diluting (1:10) a 0.6-0.8 OD600 bacterial suspension obtained from 4 days’ culture on HP agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37°C in the microaerobic incubator. The MIC values were determined by three independent assays after 4 and 6 days of incubation. H. bizzozeronii CIII-1GEN (MIC = 4 μg/mL) was used as reference control. The EUCAST 2012 clinical breakpoint of metronidazole (> 8 μg/mL) described for H. pylori was used to classify H. bizzozeronii as either resistant or susceptible.
Selection of spontaneous metronidazole-resistant H. bizzozeronii isogenic mutants
Spontaneous metronidazole-resistant H. bizzozeronii mutants were selected by a single passage in media containing four times the MIC of metronidazole. Briefly, a suspension containing approximately 106 cfu/mL of 3-day-grown H. bizzozeronii CIII-1GEN was prepared in BHI-Fbv and cultured in biphasic medium (HP coupled with BHI-Fbv) for 36 h. Then, 100 μL was spread onto HP agar plates containing 16 μg/mL of metronidazole. After six to ten days of incubation, resistant colonies were picked up and transferred to a new HP plate containing 16 μg/mL of metronidazole before being frozen at −70°C in 10% glycerol for further use. From each mutant, HBZC1_00960 was amplified and sequenced. The experiment was repeated three times.
Construction of H. bizzozeronii rdxA :: cat ( ΔrdxA ) isogenic mutants
Chromosomal inactivation of the HBZC1_00960 gene (H. bizzozeronii rdxA homolog) was performed by allelic exchange using the chloramphenicol resistance gene (cat), as previously described. The cat gene was introduced in the same direction as the target gene using Xba I and Kpn I restriction sites. The resultant plasmid, pCP5, was constructed and amplified in E. coli TOPO10 and used as a suicide plasmid in H. bizzozeronii. Mutants were obtained by electroporation as described for H. felis. After electroporation, the bacteria were left to recover on HP agar plates for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. The mutant strains (H. bizzozeronii rdxA::cat) were selected on HP agar plates supplemented with chloramphenicol (10 mg/mL). The plates were incubated up to 10 days, and the site of recombination was verified by PCR.
Determination of mutation rate and mutation frequency by Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis
The mutation rate and frequency of H. bizzozeronii for metronidazole were calculated using Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis. Briefly, from a three days’ culture, a suspension of approximately 106 H. bizzozeronii CIII-1GEN per mL was prepared in BHI-Fbv broth and divided into twenty-four 0.5 mL aliquots. These aliquots were allowed to grow in biphasic medium (HP coupled with BHI-Fbv) for 36 h to obtain parallel, independent cultures. The number of resistant mutants that emerged in each culture was determined by plating an aliquot of the culture on HP agar plates containing 16 μg/mL metronidazole. The total number of cells (Nt) was determined by plating an appropriate dilution of three cultures on non-selective medium. Colonies on both selective and non-selective plates were counted after a maximum of 10 days of incubation. The frequency of resistant mutants was expressed as the mean number of resistant cells divided by the total number of viable cells per culture. For the calculation of the mutation rate, the most likely number of mutations per culture observed (mobs) was first calculated from the distribution of numbers of resistant mutants in the independent cultures by the Ma-Sandri-Sarkar maximum-likelihood method using the FALCOR web tool. The effect of the sampling in the calculation of the most likely number of mutations was corrected for by applying the following equation: where z is the fraction of culture plated. Then, the mutation rate (μ) per cell division was calculated as:, where Nt is the total cell number per culture.
Time-kill curve for metronidazole
H. bizzozeronii strain CIII-1GEN and its derivate CIII-1GEN ΔrdxA and CIII-1GEN M11 (spontaneous metronidazole resistant mutant) were sequentially sub-cultivated. CIII-1GEN was maintained on non-selective plates, CIII-1GENrdxA::cat was maintained in the presence of 16 μg/mL of metronidazole, and CIII-1GEN M11 was maintained in both conditions. After 10, 12 and 15 passages, approximately 108 cells/mL of each H. bizzozeronii strain were suspended in BHI-Fbv with or without 32 μg/mL of metronidazole. After 16 h, the intracellular ATP levels were measured using BacTiter-GloTM (Promega). The experiment was performed in duplicate. The data were analyzed as percentage of relative light units (RLU) of the treated samples compared to the untreated ones. The statistical analysis was performed by applying One-way ANOVA analysis of variance followed by Tukey‘s Multiple Comparison using GraphPad Prism version 4.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software, San Diego, California, USA).
MIC values of metronidazole after 4 days of incubation for H. bizzozeronii strain CIII-1 GEN , H. bizzozeronii CCUG 35545 T , and corresponding mutants
H. bizzozeronii strains
Cytosine stretch in 3′ of rdxA
MIC value (μg/mL)
CCUG 35545T S1
CCUG 35545T S2
To further explore the role of rdxA in H. bizzozeronii’s resistance to metronidazole, the gene was inactivated using a chloramphenicol cassette in two different strains: CIII-1GEN and CCUG 35545T. Due to the lack of a suitable complementation protocol for H. bizzozeronii, two independent mutants for each strain were selected as a control for secondary mutations. All of the mutants showed eight-fold increased MIC values for metronidazole when compared to the respective parental strain (Table 2).
Fluctuation analysis for the calculation of the mutation frequencies and rates for H. bizzozeronii CIII-1 GEN which becomes resistant to metronidazole
No. of cells per culture (Nt)
Fraction of culture plated (z)
Mutation rate (μ)
Mutation frequency (f)
2.18 × 107
4.78 × 10-6
4.96 × 10-5
1.07 × 108
1.40 × 107
1.30 × 107
1.74 × 10-5
2.38 × 10-4
In association with other antibiotics, metronidazole is largely used in the first-line treatment of H. pylori infections, and an increased incidence of resistant strains has been observed in the last few years, with current rates varying from 17% in Europe to 44% in America. In contrast, almost no data are available concerning metronidazole resistance in H. bizzozeronii and other species of the H. heilmannii s.l. (such as H. salomonis and H. felis). The MICs of metronidazole for six H. bizzozeronii strains of animal origin have been estimated (by the agar dilution method) to range from 1 to 8 μg/mL, suggesting that this antibiotic could be efficiently applied to eradicate H. bizzozeronii infections. However, the analysis of isolates obtained from multiple biopsy samples from the same patient[7, 15] revealed the simultaneous presence of metronidazole-susceptible and resistant variants. These data suggest that the isogenic variation of H. bizzozeronii may lead to the accumulation of heteroresistant phenotypes for metronidazole, resulting in treatment failure.
Metronidazole resistance is a strong predictor of treatment failure for Helicobacter infections when the treatment contains metronidazole. However, due to insufficient information about the genetic background of the resistant phenotype, non-invasive detection of metronidazole resistance is not yet feasible[16, 26]. Several years of investigation have provided evidence that the main causes of metronidazole resistance in H. pylori are mutations that alter the correct function of the nitroreductases rdxA or frxA. However, this resistance has recently been shown to involve more complex changes than the simple inactivation of rdxA or frxA, including intracellular redox potential and global gene regulation[29, 30]. To investigate possible changes in H. bizzozeronii after the acquisition of metronidazole resistance, a comparative genome analysis of susceptible and resistant isogenic strains has been performed. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (Indels) were detected in the metronidazole-resistant strain compared to the isogenic susceptible one, indicating that the modification of several genes could participate in the resistant phenotype. However, among the five nitroreductases identified in the H. bizzozeronii CIII-1GEN genome, only the homolog of H. pylori rdxA was affected in the resistant strain, and its C-terminal cysteine-containing conserved region (IACLXALGK) was disrupted. This mutation resulted from the extension (from C8 to C9) of a simple sequence cytosine repeat (SSCR) located in the 3’ region of the gene. A comparative analysis showed that a similar 3' SSCR is also present in the same position in the rdxA homolog of H. heilmannii s.s. but not in H. pylori. In this study, we showed that the extension of the 3′ SSCR of rdxA was the only mutation detected in the majority of in vitro spontaneous H. bizzozeronii metronidazole resistant mutants. In addition, we observed that an H. bizzozeronii ΔrdxA mutant strain showed the same MIC value of metronidazole that was observed in the spontaneous mutants. These data indicate that loss of function mutations in rdxA, and, in particular, the disruption of the conserved region IACLXALGK, are sufficient to produce clinically significant resistance to metronidazole in H. bizzozeronii. These findings extend our knowledge of the types of mutations that affect the functionality of rdxA in Helicobacter spp., and they support the idea that the C-terminal cysteine-containing conserved region plays a critical role in the ability of RdxA to catalyze nitroreduction. Moreover, slipped-strand mispairing of the rdxA 3′SSCR appears to be the most frequent mechanism leading to the inhibition of the H. bizzozeronii metronidazole-nitroreductase activity. Therefore, H. bizzozeronii rdxA represents the first example of a contingency gene being associated with metronidazole resistance.
Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter and other bacterial genomes can mediate phase variation due to their high mutation rates and reversible mutations, providing a population-based mechanism for stochastic variation in expression of specific genes and rapid adaptation to environmental fluctuations[20, 32]. In this study, we demonstrated that H. bizzozeronii acquires resistance to metronidazole at a mutation rate similar to that described for phase-variable genes in Campylobacter jejuni and other bacterial species. In addition, we observed an increased level of susceptibility to metronidazole in a spontaneous mutant maintained in non-selective conditions after approximately 15 passages, indicating that the resistant phenotype is reversible. Based on these data, it is tempting to speculate that metronidazole resistance in H. bizzozeronii is a phase-variable phenotype due to the contingency nature of rdxA. However, several other unknown mechanisms could lead to metronidazole resistance in H. bizzozeronii, overcoming the stochastic variation. In addition, it is not clear how frequently the reversion of the mutation (C9 to C8) occurs. In fact, we recently detected that the larger fraction of the H. bizzozeronii population colonizing the stomach of a patient maintained the C9 allele in rdxA six months after the end of the therapy. Although it is clear that disruption of the C-terminal cysteine conserved region of rdxA decreases the ability of H. bizzozeronii to catalyze the metronidazole nitroreduction, the effect of this mutation on NAD(P)H-oxidase activity is unknown. Therefore, it may be possible that the same mutation that provides resistance to metronidazole does not alter the physiological activity of rdxA, or paradoxically, induces an increased fitness of the bacterium. This could lead to the fixation of the mutation in the population, as observed in the patient.
In conclusion, H. bizzozeronii, and potentially other species of H. heilmannii s.l., easily acquired clinically significant resistance to metronidazole due to the high mutation rate of SSCR located in the 3′ region of rdxA. Although we observed in vitro reversibility of the phenotype, there is evidence that the mutation can be maintained in vivo even six months after the end of therapy. Therefore, the contingency nature of rdxA should be carefully considered when metronidazole is used in the treatment of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis in humans.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for the publication of this report and any accompanying images.
Brain Heart Infusion containing 10% Fetal Bovine Serum, Skirrow selective supplement and Vitox supplement
Minimum inhibitory concentration
Colony forming unit
Simple sequence cytosine repeat
Relative light unit
Single nucleotide polymorphism
Insertions or deletion.
This study was funded by Academy of Finland FCoE MiFoSa, no. 11411405, and Academy of Finland Postdoctoral Fellowship no. 132940.
- Suerbaum S, Michetti P: Helicobacter pylori infection. N Engl J Med. 2002, 347: 1175-1186. 10.1056/NEJMra020542.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haesebrouck F, Pasmans F, Flahou B, Chiers K, Baele M, Meyns T, Decostere A, Ducatelle R: Gastric helicobacters in domestic animals and nonhuman primates and their significance for human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009, 22: 202-223. 10.1128/CMR.00041-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iwanczak B, Biernat M, Iwanczak F, Grabinska J, Matusiewicz K, Gosciniak G: The clinical aspects of Helicobacter heilmannii infection in children with dyspeptic symptoms. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012, 63: 133-136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sykora J, Hejda V, Varvarovska J, Stozicky F, Gottrand F, Siala K: Helicobacter heilmannii related gastric ulcer in childhood. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003, 36: 410-413. 10.1097/00005176-200303000-00022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sykora J, Hejda V, Varvarovska J, Stozicky F, Siala K, Schwarz J: Helicobacter heilmannii gastroduodenal disease and clinical aspects in children with dyspeptic symptoms. Acta Paediatr. 2004, 93: 707-709. 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb03001.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Andersen LP, Boye K, Blom J, Holck S, Norgaard A, Elsborg L: Characterization of a culturable “Gastrospirillum hominis” (Helicobacter heilmannii) strain isolated from human gastric mucosa. J Clin Microbiol. 1999, 37: 1069-1076.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kivistö R, Linros J, Rossi M, Rautelin H, Hänninen ML: Characterization of multiple Helicobacter bizzozeronii isolates from a Finnish patient with severe dyspeptic symptoms and chronic active gastritis. Helicobacter. 2010, 15: 58-66. 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2009.00730.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van den Bulck K, Decostere A, Gruntar I, Baele M, Krt B, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005, 49: 2997-3000. 10.1128/AAC.49.7.2997-3000.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vermoote M, Pasmans F, Flahou B, Van Deun K, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F: Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter suis strains. Vet Microbiol. 2011, 153: 339-342. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.06.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato S, Ozawa K, Sekine H, Ohyauchi M, Shimosegawa T, Minoura T, Iinuma K: Helicobacter heilmannii infection in a child after successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori: case report and review of literature. J Gastroenterol. 2005, 40: 94-97. 10.1007/s00535-004-1499-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jothimani DK, Zanetto U, Owen RJ, Lawson AJ, Wilson PG: An unusual case of gastric erosions. Gut. 2009, 58: 1669-1708. 10.1136/gut.2008.176065.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siala K, Sykora J, Hes O, Varvarovska J, Pazdiora P: Helicobacter heilmannii reinfection in a Helicobacter pylori negative adolescent: a 4-year follow-up. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007, 41: 221-222. 10.1097/01.mcg.0000212605.13348.2c.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roehrl MH, Hernandez M, Yang S, Christensen TG, Morera C, Wang JY: Helicobacter heilmannii gastritis in a young patient with a pet. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012, 76: 421-422. 10.1016/j.gie.2012.03.1403.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wuppenhorst N, Von Loewenich F, Hobmaier B, Vetter-Knoll M, Mohadjer S, Kist M: Culture of a gastric non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter from the stomach of a 14-year-old girl. Helicobacter. 2013, 18: 1-5. 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2012.00990.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schott T, Kondadi PK, Hanninen ML, Rossi M: Microevolution of a zoonotic Helicobacter population colonizing the stomach of a human host before and after failed treatment. Genome Biol Evol. 2012, 4: 1310-1315. 10.1093/gbe/evs107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaakoush NO, Asencio C, Megraud F, Mendz GL: A redox basis for metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009, 53: 1884-1891. 10.1128/AAC.01449-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mendz GL, Mégraud F: Is the molecular basis of metronidazole resistance in microaerophilic organisms understood?. Trends Microbiol. 2002, 10: 370-375. 10.1016/S0966-842X(02)02405-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hänninen ML, Happonen I, Saari S, Jalava K: Culture and characteristics of Helicobacter bizzozeronii, a new canine gastric Helicobacter sp. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996, 46: 160-166. 10.1099/00207713-46-1-160.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kondadi PK, Rossi M, Twelkmeyer B, Schur MJ, Li J, Schott T, Paulin L, Auvinen P, Hänninen ML, Schweda EK, Wakarchuk W: Identification and characterization of a lipopolysaccharide alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from the human pathogen Helicobacter bizzozeronii. J Bacteriol. 2012, 194: 2540-2550. 10.1128/JB.00126-12.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schott T, Kondadi PK, Hänninen ML, Rossi M: Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pylori and the human-derived Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1 strain reveal the molecular basis of the zoonotic nature of non-pylori gastric Helicobacter infections in humans. BMC Genomics. 2011, 12: 534-10.1186/1471-2164-12-534.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Clinical Breakpoints.http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/,
- Rossi M, Bolz C, Revez J, Javed S, El-Najjar N, Anderl F, Hyytiainen H, Vuorela P, Gerhard M, Hänninen ML: Evidence for conserved function of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in Helicobacter genus. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e30543-10.1371/journal.pone.0030543.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Josenhans C, Ferrero RL, Labigne A, Suerbaum S: Cloning and allelic exchange mutagenesis of two flagellin genes of Helicobacter felis. Mol Microbiol. 1999, 33: 350-362. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01478.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosche WA, Foster PL: Determining mutation rates in bacterial populations. Methods. 2000, 20: 4-17. 10.1006/meth.1999.0901.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hall BM, Ma CX, Liang P, Singh KK: Fluctuation analysis CalculatOR: a web tool for the determination of mutation rate using Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis. Bioinformatics. 2009, 25: 1564-1565. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp253.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rimbara E, Fischbach LA, Graham DY: Optimal therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011, 8: 79-88. 10.1038/nrgastro.2010.210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kupcinskas L, Rasmussen L, Jonaitis L, Kiudelis G, Jorgensen M, Urbonaviciene N, Tamosiunas V, Kupcinskas J, Miciuleviciene J, Kadusevicius E, Berg D, Andersen LP: Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania. APMIS. 2013, 121: 431-436. 10.1111/apm.12012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu W, Yang Y, Sun G: Recent insights into antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2012, 2012: 723183-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsugawa H, Suzuki H, Satoh K, Hirata K, Matsuzaki J, Saito Y, Suematsu M, Hibi T: Two amino acids mutation of ferric uptake regulator determines Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011, 14: 15-23. 10.1089/ars.2010.3146.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi SS, Chivers PT, Berg DE: Point mutations in Helicobacter pylori‘s fur regulatory gene that alter resistance to metronidazole, a prodrug activated by chemical reduction. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e18236-10.1371/journal.pone.0018236.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olekhnovich IN, Goodwin A, Hoffman PS: Characterization of the NAD(P)H oxidase and metronidazole reductase activities of the RdxA nitroreductase of Helicobacter pylori. FEBS J. 2009, 276: 3354-3364. 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.07060.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayliss CD, Bidmos FA, Anjum A, Manchev VT, Richards RL, Grossier JP, Wooldridge KG, Ketley JM, Barrow PA, Jones MA, Tretyakov MV: Phase variable genes of Campylobacter jejuni exhibit high mutation rates and specific mutational patterns but mutability is not the major determinant of population structure during host colonization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40: 5876-5889. 10.1093/nar/gks246.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.