Inability of NS1 protein from an H5N1 influenza virus to activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway correlates to the enhanced virus replication upon PI3K inhibition
© Li et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 6 November 2011
Accepted: 24 April 2012
Published: 24 April 2012
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, activated during influenza A virus infection, can promote viral replication via multiple mechanisms. Direct binding of NS1 protein to p85β subunit of PI3K is required for activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Binding and subsequent activation of PI3K is believed to be a conserved character of influenza A virus NS1 protein. Sequence variation of NS1 proteins in different influenza A viruses led us to investigate possible deviation from the conservativeness.
In the present study, NS1 proteins from four different influenza A virus subtypes/strains were tested for their ability to bind p85β subunit of PI3K and to activate PI3K/Akt. All NS1 proteins efficiently bound to p85β and activated PI3K/Akt, with the exception of NS1 protein from an H5N1 virus (A/Chicken/Guangdong/1/05, abbreviated as GD05), which bound to p85β but failed to activate PI3K/Akt, implying that as-yet-unidentified domain(s) in NS1 may alternatively mediate the activation of PI3K. Moreover, PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, did not suppress but significantly increased the replication of GD05 virus.
Our study indicates that activation of PI3K/Akt by NS1 protein is not highly conserved among influenza A viruses and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway as an anti-influenza strategy may not work for all influenza A viruses.
Influenza A virus continues to pose a severe threat to poultry farming and human health around the world. To ensure efficient replication in host cells, influenza virus manipulates cellular proteins or hijacks important signaling pathways, of which the PI3K/Akt pathway has received most attention [1, 2]. A variety of influenza A virus strains can activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to support their multiplication [3–6], which is significantly suppressed by specific PI3K/Akt inhibitors [6–8]. Therefore, targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is seen as an attractive and promising anti-influenza strategy .
Activation of PI3K/Akt during influenza A virus infection can be mediated by diverse mechanisms, such as the interactions between NS1 proteins of some avian influenza A viruses and cellular proteins Crk/CrkL ; direct binding and activation of Akt by NS1 ; as well as the accumulated viral RNA during the infectious process [12, 13]. However, the most important mechanism responsible for the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling is the association between NS1 protein and p85β subunit of PI3K [3–5, 14–17]. In the absence of other viral proteins, exogenous expression of NS1 derived from different influenza A virus strains in cells is enough to induce Akt phosphorylation and activation [3, 7, 10, 16]. In contrast to influenza A virus NS1 protein (A/NS1), influenza B virus NS1 protein (B/NS1), which shares less than 20% identity to A/NS1 in amino acid sequence, naturally lacks the potential to induce PI3K/Akt signaling .
NS1 does not exist in virus particles, but it is greatly expressed in influenza virus-infected cells, especially in the late phase of infection. The average length of NS1 from most influenza A viruses is 230 aa, however, the length can vary from 202 to 237 aa due to the deletion, truncation, or addition of amino acids. Besides, amino acid substitution is also a common event for NS1 protein, reflecting the evolutionary needs or adaptation of influenza viruses in different species. Several amino acid mutations have been shown to alter NS1 function. For instance, NS1 from different influenza A viruses displayed differential binding to CPSF30 (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 kDa) because of the residues replacement at positions 103, 106, 108, 125 or 189 [18–20]. Likewise, sequence variation in NS1 may have variable effects in activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. To address this hypothesis, four NS1 proteins from different influenza A virus subtypes/strains were selected and subjected to a series of comparative analyses. Our data showed that NS1 protein from an H5N1 virus is unable to activate PI3K/Akt, although it can interact efficiently with p85β. Additionally, this H5N1 virus exhibited an enhanced replication upon PI3K inhibition, highlighting an inner correlation between NS1 variation, PI3K/Akt pathway and virus pathogenicity.
Material and Methods
Cell lines, viruses, and reagents
Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, human lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human cervix epithelial cells (Hela) were routinely cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with antibiotics and 10% fetal calf serum at 37°C in 5% CO2.
Influenza A virus strains A/Shantou/169/06(H1N1), A/Shantou/602/06(H3N2), and A/Chicken/Guangdong/1/05(H5N1) were used in this study. Viral RNA from A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) virus was kept in our lab. The viruses above are abbreviated hereafter to ST169, ST602, GD05, and Qa97.
QIAamp viral RNA mini kit was purchased from Qiagen (Hilden, Germany); Trizol reagent and Lipofectamine 2000 from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA, USA); AMV reverse transcriptase, PrimeSTAR HS DNA polymerase, restriction endonucleases, and T4 DNA ligase from TaKaRa (Dalian, China); plasmid extraction kit and DNA gel purification kit from Tiangen (Beijing, China); and plasmid pGST-p85β expressing human p85β from FulenGen (Guangzhou, China).
Mouse anti-β-actin antibody, rabbit anti-Flag antibody, and peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse antibody were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA); rabbit anti-phospho-Akt(Ser473) antibody and rabbit anti-Akt antibody from Cell Signaling (Danvers, MA, USA); mouse anti-NS1 antibody and mouse anti-p85β antibody from Santa Cruz (CA, USA); peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 from Beyotime Biotechnology (Jiangsu, China). Mouse anti-NP antibody was produced in our laboratory.
Yeast MATCHMAKER GAL4 two-hybrid system 3 and X-α-gal were purchased from Clontech (Palo Alto, CA, USA); TNT T7 Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation Systems and Transcend Chemiluminescent Non-Radioactive Translation Detection Systems were purchased from Promega (Madison, WI, USA); Protein A/G magnetic beads from New England Biolabs (NEB, Ipswich, MA, USA); protease inhibitor cocktail from Merck (KGaA, Germany); protein G-HRP from Genescript (Piscataway, NJ, USA), and West dura enhanced chemiluminescence reagents from Pierce (Rockford, IL, USA).
Plasmid construction and confirmation
Full-length NS1 genes from different Influenza A viruses (A/Shantou/169/2006(H1N1), GeneBank: HQ849876; A/Shantou/602/2006(H3N2), GeneBank: HQ849877; A/chicken/Guangdong/1/2005(H5N1), GeneBank: EU874904; A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97(H9N2), GeneBank: AF156477) were amplified by reverse transcription PCR using viral RNA and the following primer sets: NS11-S1: 5΄-AATGGATCCATGGATTCCCACACTGT-3΄ and NS11-A1: 5΄-TCGGGATCCTCAAACTTCTGACCTAAT-3΄ for A/Shantou/169/06(H1N1); NS32-S1: 5΄-TA TGGATCCATGGATTCCAACACTGTG-3΄ and NS32-A1: 5΄-TACGGATCCTCAAACTTTTGA CCTAGC-3΄ for A/Shantou/602/06(H3N2); NS51-S1: 5΄-TATGGATCCATGGATTCCAACACT GTG-3΄ and NS51-A1: 5΄-GACGGATCCTCAAACTTTTGACTCAATTG-3΄ for A/Chicken/Guangdong/1/05 (H5N1); and NS92-S1: 5΄-TATGGATCCATGGATTCCAACACTGTG-3΄ and NS92-A1: 5΄-AGTGGATCCTCAAACTTCTGGCTCAAT-3΄ for A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2). PCR products were digested with Bam HI and inserted into PNF vector (a modified pcDNA3 vector with N-terminal Flag tag) or pcDNA3 vector, giving rise to recombinant plasmids PNF-NS11, PNF-NS32, PNF-NS51, PNF-NS92, pcDNA3-NS11, pcDNA3-NS32, pcDNA3-NS51, and pcDNA3-NS92, respectively. NS11, NS32, NS51, and NS92 are the abbreviations of NS1 protein from H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and H9N2 viruses. A plasmid PNF-NS51(I) containing 5 aa insert downstream of position 79, was constructed as described previously .
To construct NS1-expressing plasmids used for yeast trap assays, the following primers were designed: NS11-S2: 5΄-ACTGAATTCATGGATTCCCACACTGTG-3΄; NS32-S2: 5΄-CGTGAATT CATGGATTCCAACACTGTG-3΄; NS51-S2: 5΄-TATGGATCCTTATGGATTCCAACACTGTG- 3΄; and NS92-S2: 5΄-CGTGAATTCATGGATTCCAACACTGTG-3΄. The reverse transcription PCR reactions were performed using primer sets NS11-S2 and NS11-A1 for A/Shantou/169/06(H1N1), NS32-S2 and NS32-A1 for A/Shantou/602/06(H3N2), NS51-S2 and NS51-A1 for A/Chicken/Guangdong/1/05(H5N1), NS92-S2 and NS92-A1 for A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97(H9N2). PCR products were digested with appropriate enzymes and cloned into pGADT7 or pGBKT7 vector to yield plasmids pGAD-NS11, pGAD-NS32, pGAD-NS51, and pGAD-NS92, respectively.
To generate plasmid pGBK-p85β, the full-length coding sequence of human p85β was amplified from plasmid pGST-p85β using primer sets p85β-S: 5΄-GATGAATTCATGGCGGGCCCTGAGG GC-3΄ and p85β-A: 5΄-TTAGAATTCTCAGCGGGCGGCAGGCGG-3΄ by PCR and fused into pGBKT7 vector. All of the constructs were verified by sequencing.
Cells were lysed with 2 × Laemmli sample buffer (containing 5 mM NaF) in boiling water for 5 min. After brief sonication, the lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE in 10% polyacrylamide gels and separated proteins were transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes. Membranes were then blocked for 1 h in TBST containing 5% nonfat milk and incubated for 4 h at room temperature with the indicated antibodies. After extensive washes with TBST, membranes were exposed to peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody (1:3000) for 2 h. Immunoreactive proteins were visualized using West dura ECL reagent and autoradiography.
Yeast trap assays
Yeast trap assays were performed using the MATCHMAKER GAL4 two-hybrid system 3 according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, AH109 yeast was transformed with plasmids pGAD-NS11, pGAD-NS32, pGAD-NS51, and pGAD-NS92 along with pGBK-p85β and plated onto SD/-Leu/-Trp media (DDO). AH109 yeasts transformed with plasmids pGBKT7-lam plus pGADT7-T or pGBKT7-P53 plus pGADT7-T were used as negative and positive control, respectively. The plates were incubated at 30°C for about 4 days. Fresh AH109 colonies growing on DDO agar plates were picked and transferred to SD/-Ade/-His/-Leu/-Trp media containing X-α-gal (QDO/X-α-gal) followed by incubation at 30°C for 2 or 3 days. The growth and color of colonies was observed daily. Meanwhile, single AH109 colonies growing on DDO agar plates were put into liquid DDO media and cultured at 30°C overnight (~16-18 h) with shaking (250 rpm). The supernatants were gathered via centrifugation at 14 000 g for 2 min and subjected to α-galactosidase activity analysis according to the manufacturer’s protocol.
GST pull-down analysis
Escherichia coli BL21 transformed with pGEX-5x-1 or pGST-p85β plasmid was grown to mid-log phase and induced with 0.1 mM IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) at 25°C for 4 h. Bacterial pellets were frozen and thawed for 2 times and lysed with MagneGST lysis reagent containing DNase, lyticase, and protease inhibitors for 40 min. After centrifugation at 14 000 g for 10 min, the supernatants were incubated with pre-equilibrated MagneGST beads at 4°C for 30 min. The beads were then washed 3 times with binding/wash buffer and the bound GST or GST-p85β was detected by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie Blue staining.
In vitro translation of different NS1 proteins was performed using pcDNA3-based NS1-expressing plasmids and TNT T7 Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation Systems, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The translated proteins containing biotinylated lysine residues in their amino-acid sequence were verified by Western blot using Streptavidin-HRP.
Next, GST or GST-p85β beads were incubated with biotinylated NS1 proteins for 2 h at room temperature. After six washes with binding/wash buffer, bound proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, followed by Western blot analysis with anti-NS1 antibody.
Hela cells were transfected with PNF-NS51 plasmid or PNF empty vector. At 36 h post transfection, cells were lysed for 20 min on ice in cold NP-40 lysis buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP-40, and protease inhibitor mixture) and centrifuged at 14 000 g for 10 min. Supernatant was precleared by protein A/G magnetic beads for 1 h. Then, the sample was mixed with rabbit anti-Flag antibody (1:300) for 2 h at 4°C with rotation. Normal rabbit IgG was used as a control. Protein A/G magnetic beads were added to the mixture and incubated overnight at 4°C with gentle rotation. The beads were washed 3 times with NP-40 lysis buffer, followed by elution of bound proteins with 2 × Laemmli sample buffer in boiling water for 5 min. Western blot analysis was conducted using mouse anti-p85β antibody (1:750) or mouse anti-NS1 antibody (1:1000) and Protein G-HRP (1:2500). Immunoblots were developed using West Dura ECL detection reagents.
Viral growth kinetics assays
Serum-starved MDCK cells were pre-treated with 20 μM LY294002 for 2 h. Different influenza A virus strains were subsequently added at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 0.001. After 1 h of adhesion, the medium was replaced with serum-free DMEM containing TPCK-trypsin and 20 μM LY294002. Supernatants from infected cells were collected at various post-infection time points and titrated by plaque assay in MDCK cells. The experiments were repeated independently 3 times.
Differential effects of different NS1 proteins on Akt phosphorylation
To rule out the possible influence of Flag tag on NS1 function, pcDNA3-based NS51-expressing plasmid (without Flag tag) was transfected into Hela cells and analyzed by Western blotting. The level of phospho-Akt(Ser473) was the same in both the cells transfected with pcDNA3-NS51 plasmid and the cells transfected with pcDNA3 empty vector, being consistent with the above findings, (Figure 1b).
To investigate cell type specificity, we further performed phosphorylation assays utilizing the A549 cell (a widely used human alveolar epithelial cell line in NS1 research) and observed similar results (Figure 1d), indicating that the differential effects of different NS1 on Akt phosphorylation were cell type-independent.
Conservative p85β-binding sites in the NS51 protein
The activation of PI3K/Akt is known to be primarily due to direct interaction between NS1 protein and p85β subunit of PI3K [3–5, 14–17]. Since NS51 protein failed to activate PI3K/Akt, a reasonable speculation is that NS51 may not interact with p85β. Therefore, we compared the protein sequence of NS51 to three other NS1 proteins (Figure 2). Strangely, although NS51 displayed some amino acid variation to NS11, NS32 and NS92 (especially in the C-terminus), key amino acid residues, which are reportedly involved in the interaction between NS1 and p85β, such as Y89, M93, L141, E142, P162, P164, and P167 [4, 5, 16, 17], remained unchanged in NS51 (Figure 2).
Yeast trap assays of the association between different NS1 and p85β
In vitro interaction between NS51 and p85β
In vivo interaction between NS51 and p85β
Dynamics of Akt phosphorylation during infection of different influenza A virus strains
UV-inactivated influenza A viruses induced the early activation of PI3K/Akt pathway
Suppression of PI3K/Akt pathway imparts different effects on virus replication
In the present study, NS11, NS32, and NS92 proteins (expressed either by transfection or infection) efficiently activated PI3K/Akt. However, the NS51 protein did not trigger Akt phosphorylation in both situations (Figures 1 and 6c). Since NS51 had 16.5%, 18.3%, and 12.5% of amino acid sequence diversity relative to NS11, NS32, and NS92 (Figure 2), the failure of NS51 to activate PI3K could be caused by its inability to bind the p85β subunit of PI3K arising from sequence variation. Sequence alignment results show that crucial sites, which have been reported to mediate the interaction of NS1 with p85β (Y89, M93, L141, E142, P162, P164, and P167) [4, 5, 16, 17], are identical among all tested NS1 proteins (Figure 2, shadowed boxes). More importantly, yeast trap assays (Figure 3), GST pull-down (Figure 4) and Co-IP experiments (Figure 5) clearly indicate the interaction of NS51 with p85β. So it can be seen that the binding of NS51 to p85β did not lead to the activation of PI3K/Akt.
PI3K consists of a catalytic subunit (p110) and a regulatory subunit (p85β). In the quiescent state, PI3K remains inactive as the contact between p85β and p110 suppresses the enzymatic activity of p110 . Previous studies reported that interaction of NS1 and p85β forms a heterologous NS1-p85β-p110 trimer [14, 15, 17], in which NS1 blocks the inhibitory contact between p85β and p110 and leads to the activation of PI3K . Therefore, the binding of NS51 with p85β should activate PI3K. However, this was not the case. NS51 failed to activate PI3K, as shown in our experiments (Figures 1 and 6c). So it is much likely that an as-yet-uncharacterized domain within NS1 could be involved in the activation of PI3K and amino acid mutations in this domain might lead to NS51 binding without activating PI3K. Supporting evidence from Hale’s study is that two amino acid mutations at positions 96 and 97 (E96A/E97A) render loss of PI3K-activating competence of NS1 while retaining its p85β-binding activity . Furthermore, another study has shown that five amino acid mutations (GLEWN to RFPRY) at positions 184–188 entirely deprived the PI3K-activating potential of NS1 , which suggests that the 184–188 residues of NS1 are also closely related to the activation of PI3K. But we noticed that E96/E97 (including their flank sequences) as well as 184–188 residues (GLEWN) are considerably conserved in NS51 and three other NS1 proteins (Figure 2). Therefore we believe that there is still another region responsible for PI3K activation. We noticed that 5 residues were missing at positions 80–84 of NS51. Actually, this deletion in the NS1 protein is a popular event for H5N1 viruses isolated after 2000 [24, 25]. We then want to know whether it is implicated in the failure of NS51 to activate PI3K/Akt. Our results show that the missed 5 residues in NS51 were not associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt (Figure 1c).
In our study, both wild-type and UV-inactivated influenza A viruses provoked transient Akt phosphorylation at the early phase of infection (Figures 6 and 7), implying that attachment/endocytosis of influenza virus is sufficient for the activation of PI3K/Akt. Similar results regarding the early activation of PI3K/Akt by wild-type influenza A or B viruses have also been reported by others [7, 8]. However, it is noteworthy that two independent studies by Shin et al.  and Hale et al.  showed that UV-inactivated influenza A virus did not induce Akt phosphorylation. The reasons for this discrepancy might be that they examined phospho-Akt at the later time points (6 h postinfection in Shin’s study and 20 h postinfection in Hale’s study) or they used lower MOI (MOI = 1 in Shin’s study) than we did (MOI = 2). Moreover, different influenza virus strains or cell types may contribute to the discrepancy.
Several studies have reported that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway can significantly suppress the replication of influenza A viruses [6–8]. Nevertheless, as was shown in our experiments (Figure 8), different influenza A virus subtypes/strains differed markedly in their susceptibility to the treatment of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Although 20 μM LY294002 repressed the replication of ST169 virus to a great extent (Figure 8a), it had no apparent effect on the replication of ST602 virus (Figure 8b) and even exerted the opposite effect on GD05 virus (viral titers increased remarkably upon LY294002 treatment, as seen in Figure 8c). Similar to our results, Ehrhardt et al. found that, to efficiently suppress the replication of A/FPV/Bratislava/79(H7N7), the working concentration of PI3K inhibitor was much higher than that required for PR8 suppression (approximately 10–20 folds higher) , suggesting that the influence of PI3K/Akt pathway on influenza virus is strain-specific and PI3K activation by NS1 is not of equal importance for the efficient replication of different influenza A virus strains. We did not examine the effects of higher concentrations of LY294002 on influenza A viruses as they exhibited obvious cytotoxicity in MDCK cells (data not shown).
The reasons for the aforementioned phenomena may lie in the dual characters of PI3K/Akt activation. On the one hand, activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway benefits influenza virus replication via multiple diverse mechanisms, including preventing cellular apoptosis [3, 5, 29], promoting viral entry , enhancing viral RNA/protein synthesis or favoring nuclear export of viral RNP . On the other hand, the anti-viral function of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has also been unraveled by some studies [30, 31]. This is probably because PI3K/Akt can mediate the signal transduction of native immunity [8, 13, 32–35] or enhance expression of anti-viral factors . Accordingly, we speculate that PI3K inhibitor LY294002 may simultaneously induce two opposite effects (pro- and anti-viral effects) during influenza virus infection. Its influence on different influenza viruses is thus determined by which effect is dominant. For the ST169 virus, an inhibitory effect of LY294002 held the prevailing position, so viral replication was markedly suppressed. For ST602 virus, pro- and anti-viral effects of LY294002 were in balance, thus viral replication was not apparently affected. As for GD05 virus, although it stimulated the early activation of PI3K/Akt, it did not induce the late PI3K/Akt activation because of the incompetence of NS51. This hints the late PI3K/Akt activation may not be absolutely essential for the replication of this virus. Therefore, despite LY294002 treatment, GD05 virus titers were increased due to the inhibition of immune response.
Taken together, activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is not a conserved property of influenza A virus NS1 protein and inhibition of PI3K/Akt is not always favorable for repression of viral production. Any therapeutic measure targeting a virus-induced signaling cascade (such as the PI3K/Akt pathway) can result in variable antiviral effects due to the numerous subtypes and very high mutation rate of influenza A virus.
Human lung carcinoma cell
Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30kd
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium
Human cervix epithelial cell
- MDCK cell:
Madin-Darby canine kidney cell
Multiplicity of infection
Non-structural protein 1
Regulatory subunit of PI3K
Catalytic subunit of PI3K
Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
Tris Buffered Saline with Tween
Tosylamido-2-Phenylethyl Chloromethyl Ketone
We thank Dr William Ba-Thein for critical discussion and manuscript editing. This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [30972766, 31170852, 81001322, 81172795, 81072622], Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education , Scientific Research Foundation of Shantou University Medical College [LC0401], 211 Project of Guangdong Province (Mechanism and Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases).
- Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S: A new player in a deadly game: influenza viruses and the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Cell Microbiol. 2009, 11: 863-871. 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01309.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gaur P, Munjhal A, Lal SK: Influenza virus and cell signaling pathways. Med Sci Monit. 2011, 17: RA148-154.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehrhardt C, Wolff T, Pleschka S, Planz O, Beermann W, Bode JG, Schmolke M, Ludwig S: Influenza A virus NS1 protein activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to mediate antiapoptotic signaling responses. J Virol. 2007, 81: 3058-3067. 10.1128/JVI.02082-06.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hale BG, Jackson D, Chen YH, Lamb RA, Randall RE: Influenza A virus NS1 protein binds p85beta and activates phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006, 103: 14194-14199. 10.1073/pnas.0606109103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin YK, Li Y, Liu Q, Anderson DH, Babiuk LA, Zhou Y: SH3 binding motif 1 in influenza A virus NS1 protein is essential for PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. J Virol. 2007, 81: 12730-12739. 10.1128/JVI.01427-07.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin YK, Liu Q, Tikoo SK, Babiuk LA, Zhou Y: Effect of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway on influenza A virus propagation. J Gen Virol. 2007, 88: 942-950. 10.1099/vir.0.82483-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehrhardt C, Wolff T, Ludwig S: Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling by the nonstructural NS1 protein is not conserved among type A and B influenza viruses. J Virol. 2007, 81: 12097-12100. 10.1128/JVI.01216-07.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehrhardt C, Marjuki H, Wolff T, Nurnberg B, Planz O, Pleschka S, Ludwig S: Bivalent role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) during influenza virus infection and host cell defence. Cell Microbiol. 2006, 8: 1336-1348. 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00713.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hale BG, Randall RE: PI3K signalling during influenza A virus infections. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007, 35: 186-187. 10.1042/BST0350186.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heikkinen LS, Kazlauskas A, Melen K, Wagner R, Ziegler T, Julkunen I, Saksela K: Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283: 5719-5727.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matsuda M, Suizu F, Hirata N, Miyazaki T, Obuse C, Noguchi M: Characterization of the interaction of influenza virus NS1 with Akt. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010, 395: 312-317. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.03.166.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehrhardt C, Hrincius ER, Anhlan D, Ludwig S: Influenza A viruses induce PI3-kinase activation by two interdependent mechanisms late in the infection cycle. Cell Commun and Sign. 2009, 7 (Suppl 1): A43-10.1186/1478-811X-7-S1-A43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hrincius ER, Dierkes R, Anhlan D, Wixler V, Ludwig S, Ehrhardt C: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated by influenza virus vRNA via the pathogen pattern receptor Rig-I to promote efficient type I interferon production. Cell Microbiol. 2011, 13: 1907-1919. 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01680.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hale BG, Batty IH, Downes CP, Randall RE: Binding of influenza A virus NS1 protein to the inter-SH2 domain of p85 suggests a novel mechanism for phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283: 1372-1380.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hale BG, Kerry PS, Jackson D, Precious BL, Gray A, Killip MJ, Randall RE, Russell RJ: Structural insights into phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation by the influenza A virus NS1 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107: 1954-1959. 10.1073/pnas.0910715107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin YK, Liu Q, Tikoo SK, Babiuk LA, Zhou Y: Influenza A virus NS1 protein activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by direct interaction with the p85 subunit of PI3K. J Gen Virol. 2007, 88: 13-18. 10.1099/vir.0.82419-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Anderson DH, Liu Q, Zhou Y: Mechanism of influenza A virus NS1 protein interaction with the p85beta, but not the p85alpha, subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and up-regulation of PI3K activity. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283: 23397-23409. 10.1074/jbc.M802737200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nemeroff ME, Barabino SM, Li Y, Keller W, Krug RM: Influenza virus NS1 protein interacts with the cellular 30 kDa subunit of CPSF and inhibits 3'end formation of cellular pre-mRNAs. Mol Cell. 1998, 1: 991-1000. 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80099-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kochs G, Garcia-Sastre A, Martinez-Sobrido L: Multiple anti-interferon actions of the influenza A virus NS1 protein. J Virol. 2007, 81: 7011-7021. 10.1128/JVI.02581-06.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Twu KY, Kuo RL, Marklund J, Krug RM: The H5N1 influenza virus NS genes selected after 1998 enhance virus replication in mammalian cells. J Virol. 2007, 81: 8112-8121. 10.1128/JVI.00006-07.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li W, Wang G, Zhang H, Xin G, Zhang D, Zeng J, Chen X, Xu Y, Cui Y, Li K: Effects of NS1 variants of H5N1 influenza virus on interferon induction, TNFalpha response and p53 activity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010, 7: 235-242. 10.1038/cmi.2010.6.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alessi DR, Andjelkovic M, Caudwell B, Cron P, Morrice N, Cohen P, Hemmings BA: Mechanism of activation of protein kinase B by insulin and IGF-1. EMBO J. 1996, 15: 6541-6551.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantley LC: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Science. 2002, 296: 1655-1657. 10.1126/science.296.5573.1655.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li KS, Guan Y, Wang J, Smith GJ, Xu KM, Duan L, Rahardjo AP, Puthavathana P, Buranathai C, Nguyen TD, Estoepangestie AT, Chaisingh A, Auewarakul P, Long HT, Hanh NT, Webby RJ, Poon LL, Chen H, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Webster RG, Peiris JS: Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature. 2004, 430: 209-213. 10.1038/nature02746.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guan Y, Poon LL, Cheung CY, Ellis TM, Lim W, Lipatov AS, Chan KH, Sturm-Ramirez KM, Cheung CL, Leung YH, Yuen KY, Webster RG, Peiris JS: H5N1 influenza: a protean pandemic threat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101: 8156-8161. 10.1073/pnas.0402443101.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Geiss GK, An MC, Bumgarner RE, Hammersmark E, Cunningham D, Katze MG: Global impact of influenza virus on cellular pathways is mediated by both replication-dependent and -independent events. J Virol. 2001, 75: 4321-4331. 10.1128/JVI.75.9.4321-4331.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miled N, Yan Y, Hon WC, Perisic O, Zvelebil M, Inbar Y, Schneidman-Duhovny D, Wolfson HJ, Backer JM, Williams RL: Mechanism of two classes of cancer mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit. Science. 2007, 317: 239-242. 10.1126/science.1135394.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jackson D, Killip MJ, Galloway CS, Russell RJ, Randall RE: Loss of function of the influenza A virus NS1 protein promotes apoptosis but this is not due to a failure to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Virology. 2010, 396: 94-105. 10.1016/j.virol.2009.10.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhirnov OP, Klenk HD: Control of apoptosis in influenza virus-infected cells by up-regulation of Akt and p53 signaling. Apoptosis. 2007, 12: 1419-1432. 10.1007/s10495-007-0071-y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guo H, Zhou T, Jiang D, Cuconati A, Xiao GH, Block TM, Guo JT: Regulation of hepatitis B virus replication by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-akt signal transduction pathway. J Virol. 2007, 81: 10072-10080. 10.1128/JVI.00541-07.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mannova P, Beretta L: Activation of the N-Ras-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway by hepatitis C virus: control of cell survival and viral replication. J Virol. 2005, 79: 8742-8749. 10.1128/JVI.79.14.8742-8749.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarkar SN, Peters KL, Elco CP, Sakamoto S, Pal S, Sen GC: Novel roles of TLR3 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3 kinase in double-stranded RNA signaling. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004, 11: 1060-1067. 10.1038/nsmb847.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edwards MR, Slater L, Johnston SL: Signalling pathways mediating type I interferon gene expression. Microbes Infect. 2007, 9: 1245-1251. 10.1016/j.micinf.2007.06.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang TH, Liao CL, Lin YL: Flavivirus induces interferon-beta gene expression through a pathway involving RIG-I-dependent IRF-3 and PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB activation. Microbes Infect. 2006, 8: 157-171. 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.06.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guiducci C, Ghirelli C, Marloie-Provost MA, Matray T, Coffman RL, Liu YJ, Barrat FJ, Soumelis V: PI3K is critical for the nuclear translocation of IRF-7 and type I IFN production by human plasmacytoid predendritic cells in response to TLR activation. J Exp Med. 2008, 205: 315-322. 10.1084/jem.20070763.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaur S, Sassano A, Dolniak B, Joshi S, Majchrzak-Kita B, Baker DP, Hay N, Fish EN, Platanias LC: Role of the Akt pathway in mRNA translation of interferon-stimulated genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008, 105: 4808-4813. 10.1073/pnas.0710907105.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.